REVIEW PAPER
Exposure to bioaerosols in the selected agricultural facilities of the Ukraine and Poland - a review.
 
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1
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
2
Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Valentin G Tsapko   

Institute for Occupational Health of the AMS of Ukraine, Kiev, Saksagansky str. 75.
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18(1):19–27
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The aim of this work was to review the studies on bioaerosols which were carried out in the years 1972-2009 in following branches of agricultural industry in the Ukraine and Poland: animal farms for cows and pigs, animal feed facilities, production of biofuel from rape, herb farms and herb processing facilities. In all facilities were determined: concentration of dust and microorganisms in the air and species composition of microflora. Moreover, in Polish animal farms, herb farms and herb processing facilities, as well as in the Ukrainian animal feed facilities, was determined the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air. Dust concentrations in animal farms located in the Ukraine and Poland ranged from 6-200 mg/m3 and from 0.25-14.05 mg/m3, respectively, while in animal feed facilities they ranged from 35-306 mg/m3 and from 3.8-405 mg/m3, respectively. Dust concentrations in the facilities producing biofuel from rape in the Ukraine were in the range 3.6-28 mg/m3, whereas on herb farms and in herb processing facilities in Poland they were in the range 0.8- 1,319.6 mg/m3, and 2.2-946 mg/m3, respectively. The determined values exceeded in most cases the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) which in the Ukraine and Poland is equal to 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of microorganisms on animal farms located in the Ukraine and Poland ranged from 5.5 x 104- 1.9 x 107 cfu/m3 and from 4.7 x 104-1.5 x 106 cfu/m3, respectively, while in animal feed facilities they ranged from 2.7 x 104-2.6 x 109cfu/m3 and from 1.7 x 103-2.0 x 106 cfu/m3, respectively. Concentrations of microorganisms in the facilities producing biofuel from rape in the Ukraine were in the range 1.5 x 103-5.7 x 106 cfu/m3, whereas on herb farms and in herb processing facilities in Poland they were in the ranges of 8.8 x 102-8.0 x 106 cfu/m3, and 9.7 x 103-6.3 x 105 cfu/m3, respectively. The determined values exceeded in most cases the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) which in the Ukraine is equal to 5.0 x 104 cfu/m3. The concentrations of endotoxin in Polish animal houses were in the range 0.00125-75.0 ug/m3, whereas on herb farms and herb processing facilities they were in the ranges of 0.0045- 2,448.8 ug/m3 and 0.2-681.0 ug/m3, respectively, and in the Ukrainian animal feed facilities were within the range 0.008-240.0 ug/m3. They exceeded in most cases the level of 0.2 ug/m3 proposed as a threshold. In the air microflora of examined facilities prevailed Gram-positive bacteria (corynebacteria, cocci, spore-forming bacilli, actinomycetes) of which some (Arthrobacter spp., thermophilic actinomycetes) could be a cause of allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis). Among Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the air of agricultural settings dominated the epiphytic species Pantoea agglomerans, possessing potent allergenic and endotoxic properties. Fungi were abundant in the air of the Ukrainian agricultural settings and comprised species able to produce harmful mycotoxins. In conclusion, the airborne biological factors in stated concentrations may exert harmful effects on the state of the health of exposed workers. Formation of the bioaerosol depends on the specificity of the setting, kind of technological operations, degree of mechanization, properties of processed materials, temperature and humidity, and concentration of dust in the air.
 
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