Burnout and job satisfaction of healthcare workers in Slovenian nursing homes in rural areas during the COVID-19 pandemic
More details
Hide details
University of Novo Mesto Faculty of Health Sciences, Slovenia
Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Maribor, Slovenia
Ljiljana Leskovic   

University of Novo mesto Faculty of Health Sciences, Na Loko 2, 8000, Novo mesto, Slovenia
Introduction and objective:
Since there is no study on burnout and job satisfaction in Slovenian nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study aims to analyse job satisfaction and burnout levels of healthcare professionals working in Slovenian nursing homes in rural areas during the COVID-19 pandemic, and make a comparison with the results of the same services in 2013.

Material and methods:
The study is based on a cross-organisational and descriptive quantitative study conducted in spring 2013 (n = 556) and spring 2020 at the peak of the pandemic in Eastern Europe (n = 781) to identify the relationships and the changes in the satisfaction and burnout levels of healthcare professionals working in Slovenian nursing homes in rural areas, and on a qualitative study conducted in 2020, to identify in-depth relationships and changes in both studies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

An increase in burnout syndromes between 2013 – 2020 was observed. The respondents experienced intensified emotional exhaustion and lack of personal accomplishment during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, depersonalisation did not differ statistically over the years. During the pandemic crisis, healthcare workers were less satisfied with their job than in spring 2013. Their job satisfaction was related to satisfaction with the work of nursing homes and with the work of state institutions and politicians who directly affected their working conditions and recognition in society.

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly exacerbated already existing burnout syndromes of nursing homes healthcare workers in Slovenian rural areas. Job satisfaction proved to be a relevant predictor of burnout syndrome. A negative correlation was observed between job satisfaction in 2020 and emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment in 2013 and 2020.

Harrad R, Sulla F. Factors associated with and impact of burnout in nursing and residential home care workers for the elderly. Acta Biomed. 2018; 89(7): 60–69.
Drennan J, Lafferty A, Treacy MP, Fealy G, Phelan A, LyonsI, Hall P. Older People in Residential Care Settings: Results from a National Survey of Staff-Resident Interactions and Conflicts. NCPOP: University College Dublin, 2012. Available at Accessed 6 June 2020.
Leskovic L, Vukovič G, Leskovar R, Goriup J. Some Aspects of Burnout in Nursing Homes. A Tech Dub. 2016; 6(2): 47–62.
Neuberg M, et al. Is the burnout syndrome associated with elder mistreatment in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study among nurses. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2017; 68: 190–197.
White EM, Aiken LH, McHugh MD. Registered Nurse Burnout, Job Dissatisfaction, and Missed Care in Nursing Homes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019; 67: 2065–2071.
Adams JG, Walls RM. Supporting the Health Care Workforce During the COVID-19 Global Epidemic. JAMA 2020; 323(15): 1439–1440.
Choi KR, Skrine Jeffers K, Logsdon MC. Nursing and the Novel Coronavirus: Risks and Responsibilities in a Global Outbreak. J Adv Nurs. 2020; 23: 1–2.
McMichael TM, Currie DW, Clark S, Pogosjan A, Kay M, Schwartz NG, et al. Public Health–Seattle and King County, Evergreen Health, and CDC COVID-19 Investigation Team. Epidemiology of Covid-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility in King County, Washington. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(21): 2005–2011.
Wang H, Li T, Barbarino P, Gauthier S, Brodaty H, Molinuevo HL, Xie H, Sun, Yu E, Tang Y, Weidner W, Yu X. Dementia Care During COVID-19. Lancet. 2020; 395(10231): 1190–1191.
Ali SA, Baloch M, Ahmed N, Ali AA, Iqbal A. The Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-An Emerging Global Health Threat. J Infect Public Health. 2020; 13(4): 644–646.
Fallon A, Dukelow T, Kennelly SP, O’Neill D. COVID-19 in Nursing Homes. QJM. 2020 Apr 20: hcaa136. Published online 2020 Apr 20. 10.1093/qjmed/hcaa136.
Maslach C, Jackson SE. The measurement of experienced burnout. J Occupat Behav. 1981; 2: 99–113.
Awa WL, Plaumann M, Walter U. Burnout prevention: a review of intervention programs. Patient Educ Couns. 2016; 78(2): 184–190.
World Health Organization Accessed 6 June 2020.
Cooper AL, Carleton HL, Chamberlain ST, Cummings GG. Burnout in the nursing home health care aide: a systematic review. Burnout Res. 2016; 3: 76–87.
Alarcon, GM. A meta-analysis of burnout with job demands, resources, and attitudes. J Vocat Behav. 2016; 79: 549–562.
Dugguh SI, Ayaga D. Job satisfaction theories: Traceability to employee performance in organizations. IOSR J Bus Manag. 2014; 16: 11–18.
Herzberg F, Mausner B. The Motivation to Work. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, USA, 1993.
Vassbø TK, Kirkevold M, Edvardsson D, Sjögren K, Lood Q, Sandman PO, Bergland Å. Associations between job satisfaction, person-centredness, and ethically difficult situations in nursing homes—A cross-sectional study. J Adv Nurs. 2019; 75: 979–988.
Tarcan M, Hikmet N, Schooley B, Top M, Tarcan GY. An analysis of the relationship between burnout, socio-demographic and workplace factors and job satisfaction among emergency department health professionals. Appl Nurs Res. 2017; 34: 40–47.
Fontova-Almató A, Suñer-Soler R, Salleras-Duran L, Bertran-Noguer C, Congost-Devesa L, Ferrer-Padrosa M, Juvinyà-Canal D. Evolutionof Job Satisfaction and Burnout Levels of Emergency Department Professionals during a Period of Economic Recession. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17: 921–33.
Employee job satisfaction and engagement: Revitalizing a Changing Workforce. Accessed 19 June 2020.
Smolej Jež S, Nagode MA. Dramatic divide between social home care and institutional care. Good Quality Old Age. 2017; 20: 3–15.
Leskovic L. Influence of work and organizational factors on the development of burnout syndrome in social welfare institutions in the Republic of Slovenia. Doctoral dissertation. Kranj University of Maribor, 2014.
Maslach C. Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol. 2012; 52: 397–422.
Boyce C, Palena N. Conducting in-depth interviews. Accessed 9 June 2020.