Socio-economic development, level of urbanization and consumption of selected food products as factors in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among youths and young adults in Poland
More details
Hide details
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Paediatric Neurology, Faculty of Paediatrics, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Economics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland
Chair and Department of Epidemiology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Corresponding author
Tadeusz Zienkiewicz   

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Faculty of Economics, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2020;27(1):139-145
Introduction and objective:
Obesity and overweight among teenagers and young adults pose serious problems for the Polish health care system. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the level of urbanization, consumption of selected food products and socio-economic development in the provinces in Poland.

Material and methods:
The material used in this study is based on data published by the Central Statistics Office (GUS) for population, components of the Human Development Index (HDI), urbanization level (URBI), average monthly consumption of selected food products per person, and the percentage of obese and overweight people in the Polish provinces. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in all 16 provinces was analysed in the context of the URBI, HDI, and the average monthly consumption of selected food products.

There was no a statistically significant correlation between the number of overweight and obesity cases and the levels of HDI and URBI. The negative correlations were found between the consumption of sugar and URBI (-0,710, p=0.002), bread and grain product consumption (-0.642; p=0.007) and fresh milk consumption (-0.594; p=0.015). Fish consumption correlated with URBI at a moderate level (0.550; p=0.027). The consumption of oils and fats strongly correlated with HDI (-0.788; p < 0,001). In the group of overweight woman, a moderate negative correlation was noted (-0.511; p=0.043) in cheese and curd consumption.

The high level of economic development and urbanization have no direct impact on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Poland. The results of the study indicate existing dependencies of the consumption of some of selected products with respect to the level of urbanization.

Tatoń J, Czech A, Bernas M. Zaburzenia endokrynne tkanki tłuszczowej w patogenezie otyłości. In: Tatoń J, Czech A, Bernas M. Otyłość. Zespół metaboliczny, PZWL, Warszawa; 2007. p. 138–147.
Silventoinen K, Rokholm B, Kario J, Sorensen TI. The genetic and environmental influences on childhood obesity: a systematic review of twin and adoption studies. Int J Obes. 2010; 34(1): 29–40.
Townshend T, Lake A. Obesogenic environments: current evidence of the built and food environments. Perspect Public Health. 2017; 137(1): 38–44.
Spigel K, Tasali E, Penev P, VanCauter E. Brief communication: sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med. 2004; 141(11): 846–850.
Boyland EJ, Whalen R. Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: review of recent prevalence and impact data. Pediatr Diabetes. 2015; 16(5): 331–337.
Hruby A HF. The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture. Pharmaco -economics. 2015; 33(7): 673–689.
Kuźbicka K, Rachoń D. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2013; 19(3): 106–110.
Droń I, Wrzołek K, Klatka M. Otyłość olbrzymia u 2,7 letniego chłopca – czy to rzeczywiście problem endokrynologiczny? – opis przypadku. Endokrynol Ped. 2014; 3(48): 71–78.
Suliburska J, Bogdański P, Pupek-Musialik D, Głód-Nawrocka M, Krauss H, Piątek J. Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(1): 135–139.
Engler-Stringer R, Shah T, Bell S, Muhajarine N. Geographic access to healthy and unhealthy food sources for children in neighborhoods and from elementary schools in a mid-sized Canadian city. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2014; 11: 23–32.
Oliver LN, Hayes MV. Neighborhood socio-economic status and the prevalence of overweight Canadian children and youth. Can J Public Health. 2005; 96(6): 415–420.
Kinara S, Nelder RP, Lewendon GJ. Deprivation and childhood obesity: a cross-sectional study of 20,973 children in Plymouth, United Kingdom. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000; 54(6): 456–460.
Lundborg P, Nystedt P, Rooth DO. Body size, skills, and income: evidence from 150,000 teenage siblings. Demography. 2014 Oct; 51(5): 1573–1596.
Atella V, Kopinska J. Body Weight, Eating Patterns, and Physical Activity: The Role of Education. Demography. 2014; 51(4): 1225–1249.
Dietz WH. Overweight in childhood and adolescence. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350(9): 855–857.
Calle EE, Rodriguez CK, Walker-Thurmond J, Thun M. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348(17): 1625–1638.
August GP, Caprio S, Fennoy I, Freemark M, Kaufman FR, Lustig RH, et al. Prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline based on expert opinion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93(12): 4576–4599.
Mehta NK, Chang VW. Mortality attributable to obesity among middle-aged adults in the United States. Demography. 2009; 46(4): 851–872.
Hammond RA, Levine R. The economic impact of obesity in the United States. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2010; 3: 285–295. doi: 10.2147/DMSOTT.S7384.
Piekarzewska M, Wieczorkowski R, Zajenkowska-Kozłowska A. Stan zdrowia ludności Polski w 2014 roku. GUS, Warszawa, 2016.
Jarosz, M. Zasady prawidłowego żywienia dzieci i młodzieży oraz wskazówki dotyczące zdrowego stylu życia. Instytut Żywności i Żywienia, Warszawa, 2008.
Suder A, Janusz M, Jagielski P, Glodzik J, Palka T, Cison T, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of abdominal obesity in polish rural children. Homo. 2015; 66(4): 357–368.
daVeiga GV, daCunha AS, Sichieri R. Trends i overweight among adolescents living in the poorest and richest regions in Brazil. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94(9): 1544–1548.
Niehues JR, Gonzales AI, Lemos RR, Bezerra PP, Haas P. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from the Age Range of 2 to 19 Years Old in Brazil. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2014; 583207. doi: 10.1155/2014/583207.
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA. 2012; 307(5): 491–497.
Ng SW, Zaghloul S, Ali HI, Harrison G, Popkin BM. The prevalence and trends of overweight, obesity and nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in the Arabian Gulf States. Obes Rev. 2011; 12(1): 1–13.
Hilpert M, Brockmeier K, Dordel S, Koch B, Weiß V, Ferrari N, et al. Sociocultural Influence on Obesity and Lifestyle in Children: A Study of Daily Activities, Leisure Time Behavior, Motor Skills, and Weight Status. Obes Facts. 2017; 10(3): 168–178.
Agne AA, Daubert R, Munoz ML, Scarinci I, Cherrington AL. The cultural context of obesity: exploring perceptions of obesity and weight loss among Latina immigrants. J Immigr Minor Health. 2012; 14(6): 1063–1070.
Ball K, Crawford D. The role of socio-cultural factors in the obesity epidemic. In: Crawford D, Jeffery RW, Ball K, Brug J. Obesity Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health. ed.: Published to Oxford Scholarship Online; 2011. https://www.oxfordscholarship.... (access: 2017.12.08).
Hales CM, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Freedman DS, Aoki Y, Ogden CL. Differences in Obesity Prevalence by Demographic Characteristics and Urbanization Level Among Adults in the United States, 2013–2016. JAMA. 2018; 319(23): 2419–2429.
Ekezje J, Anyanwu E, Danborno B, Anthony U. Impact of urbanization on obesity, anthropometric profile and blood pressure in the Igbos of Nigeria. N Am J Med Sci. 2011; 3(5): 242–246. doi: 10.4297/najms.2011.3242.
Ziraba AK, Fotso JC, Ochako R. Overweight and obesity i urban Africa: A problem of the reach or the poor? BMC Public Health. 2009; 9: 456. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-465.
GUS. Produkt krajowy brutto i wartość dodana brutto według województw i podregionów w latach 2010–2015. GUS, Warszawa, 2017.
GUS. Local Data Bank. Domestic deliveries and consumption of selected consumer goods per capita in 2014. 760060&p_token=-715577720 (access: 2019.02.16).
Neumayer E. The human development index and sustainability – a constructive proposal. Ecological Economics. 2001; 39(1): 101–114.
UNDP. Human Development Report. Concept and Measurement of Human Development. UNDP, 1990.
Żyromski M. Nawyki żywieniowe w dziejach rodziny polskiej. Roczniki Socjologii Rodziny. 2003; XV: 95–112.
Grosfeld I, Zhuravskaya E. Persistent effects of empires: Evidence from the partitions of Poland. PSE, Paris, 2013.
Hill JL, You W, Zoellner JM. Disparities in obesity among rural and urban residents in a health disparate region. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14: 1051. /10.1186/1471-2458-14-1051 (access: 2019.07.30).
Lissner L, Wijnhoven TMA, Mehlig K, Sjöberg A, Kunesova M, Yngve A, Petrauskiene A, Duleva V, Rito AI, Breda J. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood overweight: heterogeneity across five countries in the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI–2008). Int J Obes (Lond). 2016; 40(5): 796–802.
Khan LK, Bowman BA. Obesity: a major global public health problem. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999; 19: 13–17.
James PT, Leach R, Kalamara E, Shayeghi M. The worldwide obesity epidemic. Obes Res. 2001; 9 Suppl 4: 228S-233S.
Dinsa GD, Goryakin Y, Fumagalli E, Suhrcke M. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2012; 13(11): 1067–1079.
McLaren L. Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiol Rev. 2007; 29(1): 29–48.
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (access: 2015.05.01).
Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC). (access: 2015.05.01).
Cheung L, Hu F. Adult obesity. (access: 2019.02.16).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Increase the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2011.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top