Pro-inflammatory cytokines in saliva of adolescents with dental caries disease
More details
Hide details
Department of Biotechnology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
Department of Synthesis and Technology of Drugs, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland
Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery Clinic, Bialystok, Poland
Department of Public Health, University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
Department of Developmental Period Medicine and Paediatric Nursing, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
Corresponding author
Anna Bielawska   

Department of Biotechnology, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(4):711-716
Introduction and Objective:
Dental caries is an inflammatory disease with multifactorial etiology. The presented study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the elevation of salivary cytokines – interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-a) is changed in dental caries patients. IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-a are particularly relevant to inflammation, one of the very first responses of the host to a pathological insult.

Material and Methods:
Whole saliva from 26 patients with dental caries, as well as 10 healthy persons, was investigated for the presence of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-a by enzyme immunoassay – ELISA.

The results showed that an elevation of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-a in unstimulated whole saliva in subjects with dental caries, compared with controls, increased and was statistically significant in all cases (p <0.05). The study also show a positive correlation between TNF-a and IL-8.

These data suggest links between the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in saliva and dental caries disease.

Lenander-Lumikari M, Loimaranta V. Saliva and dental caries. Adv Dent Res. 2000; 14: 40-47.
Featherstone JDB. The continuum of dental caries-evidence for a dynamic disease process. J Dent Res. 2004; 83: 39-42.
Dodds MWJ, Johnson DA, Yeh ChK. Health benefits of saliva: a review. J Dent. 2004; 33(3): 223-233.
Van Nieuw Amorengen A, Bolscher JGM, Veerman ECI. Salivary proteins: protective and diagnostic value in cariology? Caries Res. 2004; 38(3): 247-253.
Shapiro H, Lutaty A, Ariel A. Macrophages, Meta-Inflammation and Immuno-Metabolism. Sci World J. 2011; 11: 2509-2529.
Kyung Chang S, Noss EH, Chen M, Gu Z, Townsend K, Grenha R, et al. Cadherin-11 regulates fibroblast inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108(20): 8402-8407.
McLachlan JL, Sloan AJ, Smith AJ, Landini G, Cooperi PR. S100 and Cytokine Expression in Caries. Infect Immun. 2004; 72(7): 4102-4108.
Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Bondurant KL, Wol RK. Tumor necrosis factor-related genes and colon and rectal cancer. Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet. 2011; 2(4): 328-338.
De Paepe B, Creus KK, De Bleecker JL. The tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines in the inflammatory myopathies: Potential targets for therapy. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012; 2012:Article ID 369462.
Hirano T. Interleukin 6 in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases: a personal memoir. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B: Phys Biol Sci. 2010; 86(7): 717-730.
Barnes TC, Anderson ME, Moots RJ. ¬e many faces of interleukin-6: The role of IL-6 in inflammation, vasculopathy, and brosis in systemic sclerosis. Int J Rheumatol. 2011; 2011:Article ID 721608.
Lai Y, Shen Y, Liu XH, Zhang Y, Zeng Y, Liu YF. Interleukin-8 Induces the endothelial cell migration through the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Rac1/RhoA pathway. Int J Biol Sci. 2011; 7: 782-791.
Zimmermann HW, Seidler S, Gassler N, Nattermann J, Luedde T, Trautwein C, Tacke F. Interleukin- is activated in patients with chronic liver diseases and associated with hepatic macrophage accumulation in human liver brosis. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(6): 21381-21390.
Hashimoto S, Yoda M, Yamada M, Yanai N, Kawashima T, et al. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces interleukin-8 production in human monocytes. Exp Hematol. 1996; 24(2): 123-128.
Baggiolini M, Walz A, Kunkel SL. Neutrophil-activating peptide-1/interleukin 8, a novel cytokine that activates neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1989; 84(4): 1045-1049.
Scarel-Caminaga RM, Curtis KM, Renzi R, Sogumo PM, Anovazzi G, Viana AC, et al. Variation in the CXCR1 gene (IL8RA) is not associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis. J Negat Results Bio Med. 2011; 3(10): 13-14.
Zhang Y, Wang L, Zhang M, Jin M, Bai CH, Wang X. Potential mechanism of interleukin-8 production from lung cancer cells: An involvement of EGF–EGFR–PI3K–Akt–Erk pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(1): 35-43.
Pezelj-Ribaric S, Prso IB, Abram M, Glazar I, Brumini G, Simunovic-Soskic M. Salivary levels of tumor necrosis factor-a in oral lichen planus. Mediators Inflamm. 2004; 13(2): 131-133.
SahebJamee M, Eslami M, AtarbashiMoghadam F, Sarafnejad A. Salivary concentration of TNF-a, IL-1-a, L-6 and IL-8 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oral, Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008; 13(5): E292-E295.
Eguia-del Valle A, Martinez-Conde-Llamosas R, López-Vicente J, Uribarri-Etxebarria A, Aguirre-Urizar JM. Salivary levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Med Oral, Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011; 16(1): 33-36.
Ghallab NA, El-Wakeel N, Shaker OG. Levels of salivary interferon-gamma, TNF-a, and TNF receptor 2 as prognostic markers in erosive lichen planus. Mediators Inflamm. 2010; 2010: Article ID 847632.
National Caries Program-NIDR. The prevalence of dental caries in United States children, 1979-1980. NIH Publication No. 82-2245;1981.
Loe H. The gingival index, the plaque index, and the retention index systems. J Periodontol. 1967; 38(6): 610-616.
Lussi A, Jaeggi T. Erosion – diagnosis and risk factors. Clin Oral Invest. 2008; 12(1): S5-S13.
Jensdottir T, Arnadottir IB, Thorsdottir I, Bardow A, Gudmundsson K, Theodors A, Holbrook WP. Relationship between dental erosion, soft drink consumption and gastroesophageal reflux among Icelanders. Clin Oral Invest. 2004; 8: 91-96.
Harrington S. The role of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescent obesity: a review of the literature. J Sch Nurs. 2008; 24(1): 3-12.
Rush E, Schulz S, Obolonkin V, Simmons D, Plank L. Are energy drinks contributing to the obesity epidemic? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006; 15(2): 242-244.
Sugawara S. Host defence of oral mucosa and the molecular mechanism of oral mucosal signal transduction diseases. J Oral Biosci. 2005; 47: 115-125.
Teles R, Sekellari D, Teles F, Konstantinidis A, Kent R, Socransky S, Ha ajee A. Relationships among gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers, clinical parametres of periodontal disease, and the subgingival microbiota. J Periodontol. 2010; 81(1): 89-98.
Kurtis B, Tuter G, Serdar M, Akdemir P, Uygur C, Firatli E, Bal B. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2005; 76(11): 1849-1855.
Gabay C. Interleukin-6 and chronic inflammation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(S2): S3-S6.
Tani-Ishii N, Tsunoda A, Teranaka T, Umemoto T. Autocrine regulation of osteoclast formation and bone resorption by IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. J Dent Res. 1999; 78(10): 1617-1623.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top