Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Poland 2009-2010 – study strengths, limitations and lessons learned
More details
Hide details
Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical University, Lodz, Poland
Department of Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Boston, United States
Chief Sanitary Inspectorate, Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Rheumatology, Warsaw, Poland
Public Health Faculty, Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Mother and Child Health, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
Department of Hygiene, Chair of Social Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
Department of Biopharmacology, Medical University, Lodz, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(4):717-722
A tobacco surveillance system is crucial for improving the planning and implementation of effective tobacco control policies. The purpose of the presented study was to describe a review of the process of implementation and methodological assumption of a Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Poland. The study strengths and limitations are evaluated, as well as some recommendations given for further tobacco surveillance activities in Poland.

Material and Methods:
The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was implemented in Poland between 2008-2010. The survey population selection process was based on a three-stage stratified geographically-clustered sample of a non-institutional population aged 15 years and over. Those who lived in institutions were not surveyed. The GATS questionnaire was very detailed and provides a significant amount of data. The filed work was preceded by several training sessions for all survey staff and the pretest. Questionnaires were administered in respondents’ homes during the face-to-face interviews.

Of the 14,000 households selected for the survey, 8,948 (63.9%) households and 7,840 (93.9%) sampled individuals completed the interviews. The total survey response rate was 65.1%.

GATS was an important step towards obtaining representative, current data on the tobacco epidemic in Poland. Basic results of the study are currently available. More in-depth analysis will provide useful data for public health experts and policymakers to assign resources and establish health priorities. Unfortunately, competing targets and lack of awareness on the part of stakeholders still constrains the financial resources available to those undertaking tobacco control research in Poland. The circumscribed capacity to undertake multidisciplinary policy research limits both the quality and quantity of such studies. There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated plan for surveillance of data collection, use, access and dissemination, with defined institutional roles for each of these functions and the funds dedicated to the research.

The authors express their thanks to the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use, a programme of the Bloomberg Philanthropies, for financial support. Thanks are also due to Professor Witold Zatonski, representative of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey Scientic Committee in Poland; Dr. Lubna Bhatti, and Dr. Sameer Pujari, our partners from the World Health Organization; Krzysztof Przewoźniak and Jakub Łobaszewski, members of the Technical and Survey Staff Team; Dr. Samira Asma and Dr. Krishna Mohan Palipudi at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The contributions and support of the Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw; the Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw; the CDC Foundation; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg, School of Public Health; and RTI International are also gratefully acknowledged.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How tobacco smoke causes disease: the biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease. A report of the Surgeon General. 2010 Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
Pietras T, Witusik A, Panek M, Górski P, Kuna P. The risk of depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Post Dermatol Alergol. 2011; 6: 449-454.
Polańska K, Hanke W, Ronchetti R, Vadn Den Hazel P, Zuurbier M, Koppe JG, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childrens health. Acta Paediatr. 2006; 95, Supl. 453: 86-92.
Orzechowska A, Gałecki P, Talarowska M, Florkowski A, Pietras T, Górski P. Znaczenie rodziny dla przebiegu astmy oskrzelowej. Post Dermatol Alergol. 2010; 6: 477-483.
Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Jankowski P, Podolec P, Zatoński W. Polish forum for prevention guidelines on smoking. Kardiol Pol. 2008; 66(1): 125-6.
World Health Organization (WHO). The current status of the tobacco epidemic in Poland. WHO 2009, Copenhagen.
Giovino G, Mirza S, Samet J, Asma S. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys. Lancet 2012; 380: 668–79.
Zatonski W, Didkowska J. Closing the gap: Cancer in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Eur J Cancer 2008; 44: 1425-1437.
Act on the Protection of Health against the Consequences of the Use of Tobacco and Tobacco Products. Law Gazette 1995;10:55 (in Polish).
Kaleta D, Polańska K, Wojtysiak P, Kozieł A, Kwaśniewska M, Miśkiewicz P, et al. Effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Poland: The World Health Organization perspective. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2010; 23(2): 123-31.
World Health Organization. European Tobacco Control Report. WHO; 2007, Copenhagen.
Shafey O, Eriksen M, Ross H, Mackay J. Tobacco Atlas; 2009, American Cancer Society.
Samet J, Yach D, Taylor C, Becker K. Research for effective global tobacco control in the 21 st century: report of a working group convenced during the 10 th World Conference on Tobacco or Health. Tob Control 1998,b7: 72-77.
Kaleta D, Kozieł A, Miśkiewicz P. Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland – the aim and current experiences. Med Pr. 2009; 60(3): 197-200.
Warren CW, Asma S, Lee J, Lea V, Mackay J. Global Tobacco Surveillance System. The GTSS Atlas; 2009, CDC Fundation.
Warren CW, Lee J, Lea V, Goding A, O’Hara B, Carlberg M, et al. Evolution of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) 1998-2008. Global Health Promotion 2009; 16, Supp(2): 4-37.
The GTSS Collaborative Group. The global Tobacco Surveillance System. Tob Control. 2006; 15: 1-3.
Ministry of Health of Poland. Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Poland 2009–2010. Warsaw: Ministry of Health; 2010¬les/m... or¬_gats.poland-report-2010.pdf (in Polish) (access: 2012.01.27).
Kaleta D, Makowiec-Dabrowska T, Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk E, Fronczak A. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of daily cigarette smoking in Poland: Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009-2010). Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2012; 25(2): 126-136.
Ministry of Health of Poland. Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Poland 2009-2010. Warsaw 2010.
GATS Manual- Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS): Sample Weights Manual, Version 2.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010.
Gorber SC, Scho¬eld-Hurwitz S, Hardt J, Levasseur G, Tremblay M. The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009; Jan;11(1): 12-24. Epub 2009 Jan 27.
Kentalaa J, Utriainenb P, Pahkalac K, Mattila K. Verification of adolescent self-reported smoking. Addict Behav. 2004; 29: 405–411.
Murray RP, Connett JE, Lauger GG, Voelker HT. Error in smoking measures: effects of intervention on relations of cotinine and carbon monoxide to self-reported smoking. The Lung Health Study Research Group. Am J Public Health. 1993 Sep; 83(9): 1251-7.
Patrick D L, Cheadle A, Thompson DC, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kinne S. The Validity of Self-Reported Smoking: A Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Public Health. 1994; 84: 1086-1093.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. WHO 2003, Geneva.
WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008 – The MPOWER package. WHO 2008, Geneva.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic. Implementing smoke-free environments. WHO, Geneva; 2009.
Baris E, Waverley Brigden L, Prindiville J, da Costa e Silva V L, Chitanondh H, Chandiwana S. Research priorities for tobacco control in developing countries: a regional approach to a global consultative process. Tobacco Control 2000; 9: 217-223; doi:10.1136/tc.9.2.217.
World Health Organization. Building blocks for tobacco control: a handbook. WHO 2004, Geneva.
Wipfi H, Stillman F, Tamplin S, da Costa e Silva VL, Yach D, Samet J. Achieving the Framework Convention on Tobacco Controls potential by investing in national capacity. Tob Control. 2004; 13: 433-437.
West R, Zatonski W, Przewozniak K, Jarvis MJ. Can we trust national smoking prevalence figures? Discrepancies between biochemically assessed and self-reported smoking rates in three countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16(4): 820-822.
World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic review of the link between tobacco and the poverty. WHO 2011, Geneva.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top