Correlations among plasma silicon, magnesium and calcium in patients with knee osteoarthritis – analysis in consideration of gender
More details
Hide details
Chair and Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Traumatic-Orthopaedic and Spine Surgery Ward, Independent Public Health Care Centre in Puławy, Puławy, Poland
Department of Virology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Corresponding author
Małgorzata Kiełczykowska   

Chair and Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland, Chodźki 4 a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2019;26(1):97-102
Introduction and objective:
Osteoarthrits (OA) is a complex, chronic disorder of cartilage and bone, related to homeostasis of bioelements. The current study aimed at evaluation of correlations between plasma silicon, magnesium and ionized calcium in OA patients in consideration to gender.

Material and methods:
The study comprised 59 patients aged 69.5±9.0 years (18 males aged 66.8±9.2; 41 females aged 70.7±8.8), admitted to the Trauma and Orthopaedic Ward of the Independent Public Health Care Centre in Łęczna, Poland, due to OA and qualified to surgery. Control group consisted of 19 subjects without OA (54.5±8.6 years; 10 males aged 41.3±9.3; 9 females aged 69.1±14.9). Plasma concentrations of silicon and magnesium (spectrophotometric methods) and ionized calcium (potentiometric method) were determined.

Silicon in OA patients was significantly increased vs. control. In OA males and OA females, silicon was enhanced vs. the respective controls, but it was statistically significant only in males. Magnesium in OA patients was not significantly different from control group. In females, a significant decrease vs. the respective control was observed. No significant differences were observed in the case of ionized calcium. Positive correlations between silicon and magnesium in healthy control, both in the whole group and in male and female subgroups, were noted, while no such effect was observed in OA subjects.

The results might suggest some connection between higher OA incidence in women and the depleted magnesium in the organism. Silicon increase in OA patients, especially in men, may indicate its intense metabolism during the articular inflammatory process, likely dependent on sex hormones. It remains open whether the plasma Si increase is the effect or cause of OA.

Scorei R, Mitrut P, Petrisor I, Scorei I. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the effect of calcium fructoborate on systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia markers for middle-aged people with primary osteoarthritis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011; 144(1–3): 253–263.
Sanghi D, Mishra A, Sharma AC, Singh A, Natu SM, Agarwal S, et al. Does vitamin D improve osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013; 471(11): 3556–3562.
Yazmalar L, Ediz L, Alpayci M, Hiz O, Toprak M, Tekeoglu I. Seasonal disease activity and serum vitamin D levels in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and osteoarthritis. Afr Health Sci. 2013; 13(1): 47–55.
Li H, Zeng C, Wei J, Yang T, Gao SG, Luo W, et al. Associations of dietary and serum magnesium with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis patients. Mod Rheumatol. 2017; 27(4): 669–674.
Deng C, Zhu H, Li J, Feng C, Yao Q, Wang L, et al. Bioactive Scaffolds for Regeneration of Cartilage and Subchondral Bone Interface. Theranostics. 2018; 8(7): 1940–1955.
Jung JH, Seok H, Choi SJ, Bae J, Lee SH, Lee MH, et al. The association between osteoarthritis and sleep duration in Koreans: a nationwide cross-sectional observational study. Clin Rheumatol. 2018;
Laires PA, Canhão H, Rodrigues AM, Eusébio M, Gouveia M, Branco JC. The impact of osteoarthritis on early exit from work: results from a population-based study. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1): 472.
Zeng C, Li H, Wei J, Yang T, Deng ZH, Yang Y, et al. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5): e0127666.
Corrao S, Santalucia P, Argano C, Djade CD, Barone E, Tettamanti M, et al. Gender-differences in disease distribution and outcome in hospitalized elderly: Data from the REPOSI study. Eur J Intern Med. 2014; 25(7): 617–623.
Chang AH, Lee SJ, Zhao H, Ren Y, Zhang LQ. Impaired varus-valgus proprioception and neuromuscular stabilization in medial knee osteoarthritis. J Biomech. 2014; 47(2): 360–366.
Wallace IJ, Worthington S, Felson DT, Jurmain RD, Wren KT, Maijanen H, et al. Knee osteoarthritis has doubled in prevalence since the mid-20th century. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(35): 9332–9336.
Hussain SM, Wang Y, Giles GG, Graves S, Wluka AE, Cicuttini FM. Female reproductive and hormonal factors and incidence of primary total knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018;
Jordan JM. An Ongoing Assessment of Osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians in North Carolina: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2015; 126: 77–86.
Li H, Zeng C, Wei J, Yang T, Gao SG, Li YS, et al. Serum Calcium Concentration Is Inversely Associated With Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95 (6): e2838.
Long MJ, Papi E, Duffell LD, McGregor AH. Predicting knee osteoarthritis risk in injured populations.Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2017; 47: 87–95.
Veronese N, Stubbs B, Noale M, Solmi M, Luchini C, Maggi S. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better quality of life: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 104(5): 1403–1409.
Lü J, Huang L, Wu X, Fu W, Liu Y. Effect of Tai Ji Quan training on self-reported sleep quality in elderly Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trail. Sleep Med. 2017; 33: 70–75.
Shmagel A, Onizuka N, Langsetmo L, Vo T, Foley R, Ensrud K, et al. Low magnesium intake is associated with increased knee pain in subjects with radiographic knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2018;
Kwon SK, Sando R 3rd, Lewis TL, Hirabayashi Y, Maximov A, Polleux F. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons. PLoS Biol. 2016; 14(7): e1002516.
Morotti A, Charidimou A, Phuah CL, Jessel MJ, Schwab K, Ayres AM, et al. Association Between Serum Calcium Level and Extent of Bleeding in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage. JAMA Neurol. 2016; 73(11): 1285–1290.
Louiset E, Duparc C, Lenglet S, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Lefebvre H. Role of cAMP/PKA pathway and T-type calcium channels in the mechanism of action of serotonin in human adrenocortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017; 441(5): 99–107.
Welch AA, Kelaiditi E, Jennings A, Steves CJ, Spector TD, MacGregor A. Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated with Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women. J Bone Miner Res. 2016; 31(2): 317–325.
Zeng C, Wei J, Terkeltaub R, Yang T, Choi HK, Wang YL, et al. Dose-response relationship between lower serum magnesium level and higher prevalence of knee chondrocalcinosis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017; 19(1): 236.
Veronese N, Stubbs B, Maggi S, Notarnicola M, Barbagallo M, Firth J, et al. Dietary Magnesium and Incident Frailty in Older People at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study. Nutrients. 2017; 9(11): 1253.
Macdonald HM, Hardcastle AC, Jugdaohsingh R, Fraser WD, Reid DM, Powell JJ. Dietary silicon interacts with oestrogen to influence bone health: evidence from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study. Bone. 2012; 50(3): 681–687.
Marcowycz A, Housez B, Maudet C, Cazaubiel M, Rinaldi G, Croizet K. Digestive absorption of silicon, supplemented as orthosilicic acid-vanillin complex. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015; 59(8): 1584–1589.
Jugdaohsingh R, Watson AIE, Pedro LD, Powell JJ. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover. Bone. 2015; 75:40–48.
Spector TD, Calomme MR, Anderson SH, Clement G, Bevan L, Demeester N, et al. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid supplementation as an adjunct to calcium/vitamin D3 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteopenic females: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008; 9: 85.
Choi MK, Kim MH. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017; 176(1): 89–104.
Jugdaohsingh R, Sripanyakorn S, Powell JJ. Silicon absorption and excretion is independent of age and sex in adults. Br J Nutr. 2013; 110(6): 1024–1030.
Geusens P, Pavelka K, Rovensky J, Vanhoof J, Demeester N, Calomme M, et al. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017; 18(1): 2.
Lewińska-Preis L, Jabłońska M, Fabiańska MJ, Kita A. Bioelements and mineral matter in human livers from the highly industrialized region of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (Poland). Environ Geochem Health. 2011; 33(6): 595–611.
Ratcliffe S, Jugdaohsingh R, Vivancos J, Marron A, Deshmukh R, Ma JF, et al. Identification of a mammalian silicon transporter. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017; 312(5): C550-C561.
Wielkoszyński T. [Modified, spectrophotometric method of silicon determination in biological material]. Diagn Lab. 2000; 36(3): 377–385 (In Polish).
Rusak A, Karuga-Kuźniewska E, Wiatrak B, Szymonowicz M, Stolarski M, Radwan-Oczko M, et al. Venous insufficiency: Differences in the content of trace elements. A preliminary report. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; http://www.advances.umed.wroc.....
Bissé E, Epting T, Beil A, Lindinger G, Lang H, Wieland H. Reference values for serum silicon in adults. Anal Biochem. 2005; 337(1): 130–135.
Resmini G, Migliaccio S, Dalle Carbonare L, Sala U, Brama M, Fornari R, et al. Differential characteristics of bone quality and bone turnover biochemical markers in patients with hip fragility fractures and hip osteoarthritis: results of a clinical pilot study. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2011; 23(2): 99–105.
Lee S. Endogenous parathyroid hormone and knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study. Int J Rheum Dis. 2016; 19(3): 248–254. 12563.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top