Blood glucose level testing in Poland – do socio-economic factors influence its frequency? A nationwide cross-sectional survey
More details
Hide details
Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, School of Public Health, Warsaw, Poland
Justyna Grudziąż-Sękowska   

Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Public Health School, ul.Kleczewska 61/63, 01-826, Warszawa, Poland
Introduction and objective:
The number of patients diagnosed with diabetes is constantly increasing. Opportunistic screening for diabetes, based on blood glucose tests, can result in early diagnosis and mitigation of its complications. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of blood-glucose tests in adults in Poland, and factors associated with the frequency of blood-glucose tests, including respondents’ knowledge about diabetes.

Material and methods:
In June 2022, a nationwide cross-sectional survey was carried out among adults in Poland.` The survey used a computer-assisted web interview technique and a self-developed questionnaire that included questions on respondents’ self-reported knowledge of diabetes, time since last blood glucose test and socio-demographic characteristics of participants.

The study population comprised 1,051 individuals aged 18–85 years, among whom 53.3% were females. Over a third of respondents (36.3%) declared a bad or rather bad knowledge about diabetes. Almost half of the respondents (48.7%) had a blood glucose test in the last 12 months, and 12.4% declared that they had never had a blood glucose test. Among respondents without diagnosed diabetes, female gender (OR=1.30, 0.96–1.76; p=0.009), age over 50 years (p<0.05), history of diabetes in the respondent’s family (OR=1.83, 1.33–2.51; p<0.001), and good or at least moderate level of knowledge of diabetes were significantly associated (p<0.05) on blood glucose test frequency.

The presented data manifest the need to intensify screening for diabetes combined with implementing a comprehensive education strategy regarding diabetes in Poland.

Tinajero MG, Malik VS. An Update on the Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes: A Global Perspective. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2021;50(3):337–355. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2021.05.013.
Topor-Madry R, Wojtyniak B, Strojek K, et al. Prevalence of diabetes in Poland: a combined analysis of national databases. Diabet Med. 2019;36(10):1209–1216. doi:10.1111/dme.13949.
Zatońska K, Basiak-Rasała A, Różańska D, et al. Changes in diabetes prevalence and corresponding risk factors – findings from 3- and 6-year follow-up of PURE Poland cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):843. doi:10.1186/s12889–020–08970–5.
Mordarska K, Godziejewska-Zawada M. Diabetes in the elderly. Prz Menopauzalny. 2017;16(2):38–43. doi:10.5114/pm.2017.68589.
Polish Ministry of Health. Diabetes in numbers. Retrieved from: (accessed December 12, 2022).
Mularczyk-Tomczewska P, Zarnowski A, Gujski M, et al. Barriers to accessing health services during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland: A nationwide cross-sectional survey among 109,928 adults in Poland. Front Public Health. 2022;10:986996. Published 2022 Sep 8. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2022.986996.
Chaiban L, Benyaich A, Yaacoub S, Rawi H, Truppa C, Bardus M. Access to primary and secondary health care services for people living with diabetes and lower-limb amputation during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lebanon: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22(1):593. doi:10.1186/s12913–022–07921–7.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Health at a Glance: Europe 2020. Retrieved from: (accessed December 12, 2022).
Forouhi NG, Wareham NJ. Epidemiology of diabetes. Medicine (Abingdon). 2014;42(12):698–702. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.09.007.
Herman WH, Ye W, Griffin SJ, et al. Early Detection and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Reduce Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Simulation of the Results of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People With Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION-Europe). Diabetes Care. 2015;38(8):1449–1455. doi:10.2337/dc14–2459.
USPSTF, Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: Screening, Final Recommendation Statement. Retrieved from: https://www.uspreventiveservic... (accessed December 12, 2022).
ADA, Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022 Abridged for Primary Care Providers. Retrieved from: (accessed December 12, 2022).
2021 Guidelines on the management of patients with diabetes. A position of Diabetes Poland. Clin Diabetol 2021;10:1. doi: 10.5603/DK.2021.0001.
Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022 Abridged for Primary Care Providers. Retrieved from: (accessed December 12, 2022).
Rhee MK, Ho YL, Raghavan S, et al. Random plasma glucose predicts the diagnosis of diabetes. PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0219964. Published 2019 Jul 19. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0219964.
Marciano L, Camerini AL, Schulz PJ. The Role of Health Literacy in Diabetes Knowledge, Self-Care, and Glycemic Control: a Meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2019;34(6):1007–1017. doi:10.1007/s11606–019–04832-y.
Sękowski K, Grudziąż-Sękowska J, Pinkas J, Jankowski M. Public knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus, its risk factors, complications, and prevention methods among adults in Poland-A 2022 nationwide cross-sectional survey. Front Public Health. 2022;10:1029358. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2022.1029358.
Aaby A, Friis K, Christensen B, Rowlands G, Maindal HT. Health literacy is associated with health behaviour and self-reported health: A large population-based study in individuals with cardiovascular disease. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017;24(17):1880–1888. doi:10.1177/2047487317729538.
The Nationwide Research Panel Ariadna. About us (2023). Retrieved from: (accessed January 30, 2023).
CBOS, Zdrowie i prozdrowotne zachowania Polaków. Komunikat z badań NR 138/2016, Warszawa, październik 2016 ISSN 2353–5822. Retrieved from: (accessed December 12, 2022).
Williams ED, Tapp RJ, Magliano DJ, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Oldenburg BF. Health behaviours, socioeconomic status and diabetes incidence: the Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Diabetologia. 2010;53(12):2538–2545. doi:10.1007/s00125–010–1888–4.
Robbins JM, Vaccarino V, Zhang H, Kasl SV. Socioeconomic status and diagnosed diabetes incidence. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;68(3):230–236. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2004.09.007.
Tobiasz-Adamczyk B, Zawisza K. Urban-rural differences in social capital in relation to self-rated health and subjective well-being in older residents of six regions in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24(2):162–170. doi:10.26444/aaem/74719.
Aras M, Tchang BG, Pape J. Obesity and Diabetes. Nurs Clin North Am. 2021;56(4):527–541. doi:10.1016/j.cnur.2021.07.008.
Cooper AJ, Gupta SR, Moustafa AF, Chao AM. Sex/Gender Differences in Obesity Prevalence, Comorbidities, and Treatment. Curr Obes Rep. 2021;10(4):458–466. doi:10.1007/s13679–021–00453-x.
Stoś K, Rychlik E, Woźniak A, et al. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Poland: A 2019/2020 Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(3):1502. doi:10.3390/ijerph19031502.
Hildt-Ciupińska K, Pawłowska-Cyprysiak K. Men’s knowledge and beliefs about their care for health: results of in-depth interviews. Bezpieczeństwo Pracy: nauka i praktyka. 2019;8:17–20. doi:10.5604/01.3001.0013.3195.
Gruszczyńska M, Bąk-Sosnowska, M, Plinta R. Zachowania zdrowotne jako istotny element aktywności życiowej człowieka. Stosunek Polaków do własnego zdrowia. Hygeia Public Health 2015;50(4):558–565.
Central Statistical Office of the Republic of Poland, Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in 2022. As of 30 June 2022. Retrieved from: (accessed December 12, 2022).
American Diabetes Association. (4) Foundations of care: education, nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation, psychosocial care, and immunization. Diabetes Care. 2015;38 Suppl:S20-S30. doi:10.2337/dc15-S007.
Ramachandran A. Know the signs and symptoms of diabetes. Indian J Med Res. 2014;140(5):579–581.
Abramczyk A. The Family Knowledge about the Disease and Complications Risk among Diabetic Patients in Poland. J Data Mining Genomics Proteomics 2013;4(142):2153–0602. doi:10.4172/2153–0602.1000142.
Kwiendacz, H, Nabrdalik K, Brzoza Z, et al. Knowledge about diabetes mellitus among Polish medical students. Clinical Diabetology 2020;9(4):245–252. doi: 10.5603/DK.2020.0023.
Sobierajski, T. Coalition for fight against diabetes. Report: social image of diabetes [Polish] (2017). Retrieved from: (accessed December 12, 2022).
Pippitt K, Li M, Gurgle HE. Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis [published correction appears in Am Fam Physician. 2016 Oct 1;94(7):533]. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93(2):103–109.
Laferton JA, Kube T, Salzmann S, Auer CJ, Shedden-Mora MC. Patients’ Expectations Regarding Medical Treatment: A Critical Review of Concepts and Their Assessment. Front Psychol. 2017;8:233. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00233.