Introduction and objective:
Some fragmentary studies show that the incidence of Lyme borreliosis in Poland is increasing. It has been generally accepted that the most affected are forestry workers and farmers. The aim of the study is to compare the incidence of borreliosis in urban and rural residents in 2008–2016.

Material and methods:
Databases on Lyme borreliosis from the National Health Fund and Central Statistical Office in Poland were analyzed. For each patient, ambulatory or discharged from every hospital, the diagnosis was compulsorily reported as encoded following the International Classification of Diseases.

A steadily increasing number of patients with borreliosis in Poland was found, which doubled in 2008 – 2016. The incidence was similar in urban and rural residents. In all the provinces in Poland, an increase in incidence of borreliosis was observed, although there were big differences between them. The highest frequency of borreliosis was in Podlasie and Warmia-Masuria provinces. The lowest incidence of borreliosis was noticed in Wielkopolska province. In the most provinces the increase in the incidence of borreliosis was steady, except Warmia-Masuria, where it was very low in 2008, and soaring since 2011. The number of cases per year between 2008 – 2016 increased in both in males and females.

The results suggest the need for higher awareness of the risk of Lyme borreliosis in urban residents, because the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is growing independently of the place of residence. Prompt measures to prevent tick bites and appropriate education are urgently needed.

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