Physical activity has a positive effect on health. The level of physical activity changes with age. Elderly people often reduce their physical activity, among other things, due to deteriorating health or the belief that it is inappropriate to indulge in sports or be physically active at old agge. On the other hand, the lack of systematic physical activity in the elderly can lead to a reduction in the body’s efficiency in many health aspects. Although there are many methods of measuring human physical activity, there is no ideal tool for measuring that activity.

The main aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of selected methods of measuring physical activity in the elderly, as well as to evaluate the influence of the measured activity on the nutritional status of women over 60 years of age.

Material and methods:
The study was carried out in the area of western Poland in a group of 110 generally healthy women above the age of 60, who were divided into 3 groups of intensity of undertaken physical activity (low active 30.00%, moderately active 41.82% and active 28.18%). A pedometer and a physical activity diary were used to measure physical activity. Body composition was assessed by the bioelectrical impedance method which uses a body composition analyzer. Body height and weight, lean mass of limbs and body, adipose tissue content, total water content, waist circumference to hip circumference (WHR), and BMI (Body Mass Index) were assessed.

The correlation coefficient between the methods of assessing physical activity, i.e. the number of minutes/day and the number of steps/day, was 0.92 and was statistically significant at the level of p<0.001. This was assumed to be a strict correlation. Based on the physical activity diary, it was estimated that women spent an average of 92.85 minutes a day on physical activity, while the data obtained from the pedometer showed that they performed an average of 4,462 steps a day. The average age of the respondents was 67.25 years, and average BMI – 28.07 kg/m2.

A close correlation was demonstrated between the applied methods for assessing physical activity shows about the appropriate selection of methods, as well as, due to their ease of use, their use to assess physical activity in the elderly.

Siparsky PN, Kirkendall DT, Garrett E. Muscle Changes in Aging. Understanding Sarcopenia Sports Health. 2014; 6(1): 36–40.
Didace N, Eun-Kyung K. Measurement Methods for Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure. Review. Clin Nutr Res. 2017; 6(2): 68–80. http://doi: 10.7762/cnr.2017.6.2.68.
Włodarek D, Majkowski M, Majkowska L, Aktywność fizyczna starszych osób mieszkających w gminie Koprzywnica. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012; 63(1): 111–117. PubMed.
Park SH, Han KS, Kang CB. Effects of exercise programs on depressive symptoms, quality of life, and self-esteem in older people: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Appl Nurs Res. 2014; 27: 219–26.
Germain CM, Batsis JA, Vasquez E, et al. Muscle strenght, physical activity, and functional limitations in older with central obesity. J Aging Res. 2016; 83873249(5).
Górniak M, Rybakowski J. The effect of physical activity on psychiatric disturbances. Farmakoter Psychiat Neurol. 2015; 31: 113–119.
Wojtasik W, Szulc A, Kołodziejczyk, et al. Wybrane zagadnienia dotyczące wpływu wysiłku fizycznego na organizm człowieka. J Edu Health Sport. 2015; 5: 350–372.
Gronek P, Wielinski D, Cyganski P, et al. Review of Exercise as Medicine in Cardiovascular Disease: Pathology and Mechanism. Aging and Disease. 2020;11:2.
Mizuno C, Yoshida T, Udo M. Estimation of energy expenditure during walking and jogging by using an electropedometer. Ann Physiol Anthropol. 1990; 9(3): 283–289.
Sertel M, Arslan SA, Kurtoglu F, et al. Physical activity, depression and quality of life in aging proces. Biomed Res. 2017; 28(9): 4165–4170.
Cisek-Woźniak A, Mruczyk K, Wójciak RW. Physical activity and dietary supplementation intake among postmenopausal women. Balt J Health Phys Act. 2019; 11(3): 66–7. https://doi:10.29359/BJHPA.11.....
Kim J, Noh J-W, Park J, Kwon YD. Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis. PLoS One. 2014; 9(12): 1–9. doi: 10.1371/
Mutz M, Reimers AM, Demetriou Y. Leserem Time Sports Activities and Life Satisfaction: Deeper Insights Based on a Representative Survey from Germany. Applied Research in Quality of Life. 2020; 9.
Sabia S, van Hees VT, Shipley MJ, et al. Association between questionnaire and accelerometer-assessed physical activity: the role of sociodemographic factors. Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179: 781–90.
Lipert A, Jegier A. Metody pomiaru aktywności ruchowej człowieka. Polish J Sport Med 2009; 3(6); Vol. 25: 155–168.
Sylvia GL, Bernstein EE, Hubbard JL, et al. Practical Guide to Measuring Physical Activity, J Acade Nutr Diet. 2014; 114: 2: 199–208
Hidding LM, Chinapaw MJM, van Poppel MNM, et al. An updated systematic review of childhood physical activity questionnaires. Sports Med. 2018; 48: 2797–842. 9-018-0987-0.
Hupin D, Roche F, Gremeaux V, et al. Even a low-dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reduces mortality by 22% in adults aged ≥ 60 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2015; 49: 1262–7.
Falck RS, McDonald SM, Beets MW, et. al. Measurement of physical activity in older adult interventions: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50: 464–70. 2014-094413.
Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, et al. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet Glob Health. 2018; 6: e1077–86.
Loyen A, van Hecke L, Verloigne M, et al. Variation in population levels of physical activity in European adults according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016; 13: 72.
Alarie N, Kent L. Physical Activity Assessment and Impact. Diet and Exercise in Cystic Fibrosis 2015; 299–306.
Nielson R, Vehrs PR, Fellingham GW, et al. Stepcounts and energy expenditure as estimated by pedometry during treadmill walking at differentstride frequencies. J Phys Act Health 2011; 8(7): 1004–1013. doi: 10.1123/jpah.8.7.1004.
Nawrocka A, Młynarski W, Cholewa J. Adherence to physical activity guidelines and functional fitness of elderly women, using objective measurement. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017; 24(4): 632–635. doi:
Westerterp KR. Doubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017; 117(7): 1277-1285. http://doi:10.1007/s00421-017-....
Skender S, Ose J, Chang-Claude J, et al. Accelerometry and physical activity questionnaires — a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 515.
Silsbury Z, Goldsmith R, Rushton A. Systematic review of the measurement properties of self-report physical activity questionnaires in healthy adult populations. BMJ Open. 2015; 5: e008430. en-2015-008430.
Sabia S, van Hees VT, Shipley MJ, et al. Association between questionnaireand accelerometer-assessed physical activity: the role of sociodemographic factors. Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179: 781–90.
Nuttall FQ. Body Mass Index. Obesity, BMI, and Health: A Critical Review. Nutr Today. 2015; 50(3): 117–128. http://doi:10.1097/NT.00000000....
Pandey A, LaMonte M, Klein L, et al. Relationship Between Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 69(9): 1129–1142.
Jackson C, Herber-Gast GC, Brown W. Joint Effects of Physical Activity and BMI on Risk of Hypertension in Women: A Longitudinal Study. 2014, Article ID 271532, 7 pages
Janiszewska R, Orawiec R, Nowak S. Assessment of body composition, total fatness and fatty tissue distribution in women during process of aging. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2015; 96(2): 517–522.
Yokoyama K, Yamada Y, Akamatsu Y. Effects of Capsinoids on Daily Physical Activity, Body Composition and Cold Hypersensitivity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Randomized Study. Nutrients 2020; 12(1): 212.
Telford RM, Telford RD, Cochrane T, et al. The influence of sport club participation on physical activity, fitness and body fat during childhood and adolescence: The LOOK Longitudinal Study. J Sci Med Sport. 2016; 19: 400–406.
Falck RS, McDonald SM, Beets MW, et al. Measurment of physical acyivity in older adult interventions: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50: 464–70.
Kowalski K, Rhodes R, Naylor P-J, et al. Direct and indirect measurement of physical activity in older adults: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012; 9: 148.