Online first

Overweight and obesity vs. simple carbohydrates consumption by elderly people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system

Joanna Zając 1,  
Department of Hygiene and Dietetics, MedicalCollege, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
Overweight and obesity belong to the alarming and constantly increasing problems of the 21st century among all age groups. One of the major factors enhancing these problems are simple carbohydrates commonly found in popular sweet drinks.

The aim of the study was to estimate the nutritional patterns of elderly people with diagnosed cardiovascular system diseases, and analysis of the relationship between consumption of simple carbohydrates and prevalence of overweight and obesity.

Material and Methods:
From 233 individuals hospitalized in the Clinic of Cardiology and Hypertension in Krakow, Poland, a group of 128 elderly people was selected (66 women and 62 men). Actual food consumption for each individual was assessed using a 24-hour nutrition recall. BMI values was calculated for assessment of nutritional status. Statistical analysis was performed on two groups: one with BMI <25kg/m2 and other with BMI≥25kg/m2.

Overweight was stated among 33.8% of women and 50% of men, obesity among 27.7% of women and 17.7% of men. Results indicated that consumption of products rich in sucrose was associated with overweight and obesity. People with overweight and obesity statistically more often ate sweet products comparing to those with proper weight: 46.2 g vs 33.8g. The growing world-wide epidemic of overweight and obesity is one of the main priorities of preventive medicine remains changing eating patterns As observed in this study, one additional spoon of sugar consumed daily increases the risk of being overweight or obese by about 14%.

Overweight and obesity was found among 60% of the examined elderly people. Correlation was found between rise in risk of obesity or overweight by about 14% with each additional spoon of sugar (5g) eaten every day.

Agata Skop-Lewandowska   
Department of Hygiene and Dietetics, MedicalCollege, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
1. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Causes of obesity. Lancet 2001; 357: 1978–1979.
2. Obesity. Preventing and managing of the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation on obesity. WHO, Geneva 2000.
3. Biela U, Pajak A, Kaczmarczyk-Chałas K, Głuszek J, Tendera M. Frequency of overweight and obesity among women and men between 20–74 years old. Results of WOBASZ programme. Kardiol Pol. 2005; 63: 1–4 (in Polish).
4. Wykrzykowski B, Zdrojewski T. Overweight and obesity. NATPOL PLUS 2002 study. www.natpol.pl (asscessed on 25 April 2014)(in Polish).
5. Pająk A, Topór-Mądry R, Waskiewicz A. Body mass index and risk of death. POL-MONICA study in Polish population at middle-age. Kardiol Pol. 2005; 62: 101–105(in Polish).
6. Zatońska K, Janik-Koncewicz K, Ilow R, Regulska-Ilow B, Różańska D, Szuba A, et al. Prevalence of obesity – baseline assessment it the prospective cohort PONS study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 246–250.
7. Ilow R, Regulska-Ilow B, Różańska D, Zatońska K, Dehghan M, Zhang X, et al. Assessment of dietary intake in a sample of Polish population- baseline assessment from the prospective cohort PONS study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 229–234.
8. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infraction in 52 countries (INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004; 364: 937–952.
9. Szponar L, Wolnicka K, Rychlik E. Album of food products and dishes. National Food and Nutrition Institute. Warsaw 2000 (in Polish).
10. Jarosz M. Polish nutritional guidelines – amendment. National Food and Nutrition Institute. Warsaw 2012 (in Polish).
11. Kłosiewicz-Latoszek L, Szostak WB, Podolec P. Nutrition Guidelines of Polish Forum of Circulation System Disease Prophylaxis. www.pfp.edu.pl (asscessed on 30 April 2014) (in Polish).
12. European guidelines in prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice. Kardiol Pol. 2012; 70: 39–43 (in Polish).
13. European Ford Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientyfic Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats including Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturates fatty acids and cholesterol. EFSA Journal 2010; 8: 1461.
14. Kłosiewicz-Latoszek L, Cybulska B. Sugar and health of obesity, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2011; 92: 181–186 (in Polish).
15. Van Horn L, Johnson RK, Fickinger BD. Translation and implementation of added sugars consumption recommendations: a conference Report from American Heart association. Circulation 2010; 122: 2470–2490.
16. Sekuła W, Figurska K, Barysz A, Ołtarzewska M. Results of nutrition monitoring among people in Poland. Żyw Człow Metab. 2008; 35: 371–395 (in Polish).
17. Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA. Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation 2010; 121: 1356–1364.
18. Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 274–288.
19. Wojtyła-Buciora P, Stawińska-Witoszyńska B, Klimberg A, Wojtyła A, Goździewska M, Wojtyła K et al. Nutrition-related health behaviours and prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish children and adolescents. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013; 20(2): 332–340.
20. Brisbois TD, Marsden SL, Anderson GH, Sievenpiper JL. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet. Nutrients 2014; 6: 1899–1912.
21. Cobiac L. Sugars in the Australian diet: results from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Nutr. Diet. 2003; 60: 152–173.
22. Ervin, RB, Ogden CL. Consumption of added sugar among US adults, 2005–2010. NCHS data Brief 2013; 122: 1–8.
23. Troiano RP, Briefel RP, Carrol MD. Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the United States: Data from the National health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 1343–1353.
24. Chen L, Appel LJ, Loria C. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial. Am J Nutr. 2009; 89: 1299–1306.
25. Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Coldiz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willet WC, et al. Sugar-sweetened beveragrs, weight gain and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle aged women. JAMA 2004; 292: 927–934.
26. Rajeshwari R, Yang SJ. Secular trends in children’s sweetened beverage consumption: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105: 208–214.
27. Miller WC, Lindeman AK, Niederpruem M. Diet composition, energy intake and exercise in relation to body fat in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 52: 426–430.
28. West JA, de Looy AE. Weight loss in overweight subjects following low-sucrose diet during diets. Int J Obes. 2001; 8: 1122–1128.
29. Surwit RS, Fenigols MN, McCaskill CC, Clay SL, Babyak MA, Brownlow BS, et al. Metabolic and behavioral effects of a higt-sucrose diet during weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65: 1122–1128.
30. Vermunt SHF, Pasman WJ, Schaafsma G, Kardinaal AFM. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: a review. Obesity Revies 2003; 4: 91–99.
31. Barclay AW, Brand-Miller J. The Australian paradox: A substantial decline in sugars intake over the same timeframe that overweight and obesity have increased. Nutrients 2011; 3: 491–504.
32. Anderson AL, Harris TB, Tylavsky FA. Dietary patterns and survival of older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111: 84–91.
33. Welsh JA, Sharma A, Cunningham SA, Vos MB. Consumption of added sugars and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk among US adolescents. Circulation 2011; 123: 249–257.
34. Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in community. Circulation 2007; 116: 480–488.
35. Fung TT, Malik V, Rexrode KM. Sweetened beverage consumption and risk coronary heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89: 1037–1042.