RESEARCH PAPER
Fear of movement (kinesiophobia) – an underestimated problem in Polish patients at various stages of coronary artery disease
 
More details
Hide details
1
School of Health Sciences, Katowice, Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
2
School of Health Sciences, Katowice, Department of Adapted Physical Activity and Sport, Chair of Physiotherapy, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
3
School of Health Sciences, Katowice, Department of Kinesiology, Chair of Physiotherapy, Med-ical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
4
School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Department of Physiotherapy, Chair of Physiotherapy, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Anna Monika Brzęk   

School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Department of Physiotherapy, Chair of Physiotherapy, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland, Poland
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
Ethics approval. The study was approved by the Bioethical Committee of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice (Resolution No. KNW/0022/KBI/98/15).
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The importance of the problem of reduced motor activity in the prophylaxis and treatment of many diseases has resulted in numerous adaptations of a diagnostic tool, both for the disease and for linguistic and cultural versions. This also applies to cardiovascular diseases. The significance of the problem, and encouraging results of several studies, have led to a wider use of this tool. This also applies to people suffering cardiologically in Poland, where this problem is poorly understood. This was the inspiration to undertake research on the explanation of the reasons for the limitation in the activation of cardiac patients.

Objective:
The aim of the study was to determine the level of kinesiophobia in patients with CAD, and to assess its possible association with physical activity (PA), socio-demographic determinants and morbidity.

Material and methods:
The study was cross-sectional and included 217 hospitalized patients with CAD: 94 women and 123 men; aged 67.39 years. PA was assessed using the short version of IPAQ, and kinesiophobia was assessed using TSK Heart in Polish adaptation. TSK HeartIPAQ correlations were found.

Results:
More than 70% of the patients revealed high levels of kinesiophobia (TSK>37 points). There were no TSK associations with gender, BMI, socio-demographic variables, other conditions and duration of cardiovascular disease. The disease is the main cause of kinesiophobia and regardless of its nature, negatively affects the level of PA.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare no conflict of interest, neither financial nor non-financial, and was entirely self-financed. The design of the study, collection, analyses, interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript, and decision to publish the results were performed only by the authors. The study does not contain data from any individual person and data obtained from the questionnaires is freely available upon request.
 
REFERENCES (36)
1.
Cierniak-Piotrowska M, Marciniak G, Stańczak J. Statistics of deaths and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. GUS Warszawa 2016. p 1–28.
 
2.
European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics http://www.ehnheart.org/cvd-st... (access: 2017.07.7).
 
3.
WHO Cardiovascular disease. http://www.who.int/cardiovascu... (access: 2017.07.7).
 
4.
Karolewska-Kuszej M, Brodowski L. Kompleksowa rehabilitacja u pacjentów z chorobami układu krążenia. Forum Kardiologów. 2005; 10; 4: 111−114.
 
5.
Deskur-Śmielecka E, Jóźwiak A, Dylewicz P. Rehabilitacja kardiologiczna u osób w podeszłym wieku. Kardiol Pol. 2008; 66; 6: 684.
 
6.
Batty GD. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in older adults. A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Eur J of Public Health. 2002; 12: 171–176.
 
7.
Löllgen H, Bachl N. Cardiovascular prevention and regular physical exercise: Activity and training as the true “polypill”. Herz. 2016; 41; 8: 664–670.
 
8.
Piepoli MF, Hoes AH, Agewall A, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice Kardiol Pol. 2016; 74; 9:821–936.
 
9.
Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate PR, et al. Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults From the American College ofSports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007; 116: 1081–1093.
 
10.
Smarż, K. Cardiac rehabilitation in various clinical situation – phases, indications, contraindications, risks and safety issues. Borgis – Postępy Nauk Medycznych. 2008; 10: 643–652.
 
11.
Piepoli MF, Conraads V, Corrà U, et al. Exercise training in heart failure: from theory to practice. A consensus document of the Heart Failure Association and the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. Eur J Heart Fail. 2011; 13; 4: 347–57.
 
12.
Beswick AD, Rees K, West RR, et al. Improving uptake and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2005; 49; 5: 538–555.
 
13.
Knapik A, Saulicz E, Gnat R. Kinesiophobia – introducing a new diagnostic tool. J Hum Kinet. 2011; 28: 25–31.
 
14.
Kori SH, Miller RP, Todd DD. Kinesiophobia: A new view of chronic pain behavior. Pain Management. 1990; 3: 35–43.
 
15.
Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention. Cancer J Clin. 2006; 56: 254–281.
 
16.
Houben RMA, Leeuw M, Vlaeyen JWS, et al. Fear of Movement/Injury in the General Population: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of an Adapted Version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. J Behav Med. 2005; 5; 28: 415–424.
 
17.
Roelofs J, Sluiter JK, Frings-Dresen MH, et al. Fear of movement and (re)injury in chronic musculoskeletal pain: Evidence for an invariant two-factor model of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across pain diagnoses and Dutch, Swedish, and Canadian samples. Pain. 2007; 131: 181–190.
 
18.
Koho P, Borodulin K, Kautiainen H, et al. Finnish version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: Reference values in the Finnish general population and associations with leisure-time physical activity. J Rehabil Med. 2015; 47; 3: 249–255.
 
19.
Bäck M. Exercise and Physical Activity in relation to Kinesiophobia and Cardiac Risk Markers in Coronary Artery Disease. University of Gothenburg Gothenburg 2012.
 
20.
Bäck M, Cider A, Herlitz J, et al. The impact on kinesiophobia (fear of movement) by clinical variables for patients with coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol. 2012; doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.12.107.
 
21.
Acar S, Savci S, Keskinoğlu P, et.al. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability. J Pain Res. 2016; 9: 445–451.
 
22.
Brunetti ND, Guerra A, Ieva R, et. al. Scared for the scar: fearsome impact of acute cardiovascular disease on perceived kinesiophobia (fear of movement). Clin Cardiol. 2017; 40; 7: 480–484.
 
23.
Vlaeyen JW, Kole-Snijders AM, Boeren RG, van Eek H. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain. 1995; 62;: 363–372.
 
24.
Newmark P. Approaches to Translation. New York; London: Prentice Hall MacMillan 1995.
 
25.
Biernat E, Stupnicki R, Gajewski A. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) – Polish version. Physical Education and Sport. 2007; 51; 1: 47–54.
 
26.
O’Neill K, Reid G. Perceived barriers to physical activity by older adults. Can J Public Health. 1991; 82; 6: 392–396.
 
27.
Pugh ME, Buchowski MS, Robbins, IM, et al. Physical activity limitation as measured by accelerometry in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest. 2012; 142; 6: 1391–1398.
 
28.
Vasudevan V, Rimmer J, Kviz F. Development of the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments. Disabil Health J. 2015; 8; 4: 547–556.
 
29.
Saulicz M, Saulicz E, Knapik A, et al. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age. Menopause Reviev. 2016; 15; 2: 104–111.
 
30.
Daskapan A, Tuzun EH, Eker L. Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students. J of Sports Sci Med. 2006; 5: 615–620.
 
31.
Gómez-López M, Gallegos AG Extremera, AB. Perceived barriers by university students in the practice of physical activities. J Sports Sci and Med. 2010; 9: 374–381.
 
32.
Woby SR, Roach NK, Urmston M, Watson PJ. Psychometric properties of the TSK-11: A shortened version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Pain. 2005; 117: 137–144.
 
33.
Cieślik B. Physical and psychological effects of cardiac rehabilitation − literature review. Acta Bio-Optica et Informatica Medica. 2016; 22; 2: 71–97.
 
34.
Darden D, Richardson C, Jackson CA. Physical Activity and Exercise for Secondary Prevention among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2013; 7; 6. doi: 10.1007/s12170–013–0354–5.
 
35.
Wolpe J. Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University. 1958.
 
36.
Dubort G. Part12. Systematic desentization. Can Fam Physician. 2011; 57; 11: 1299.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966