Introduction and objective:
Hazel, alder, birch, and poplar pollen allergens are a common cause of pollen allergies. In a temperate climate, wind-pollinated plants are characterized by a seasonal pollen release cycle associated with the seasons of the year and weather conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the course of pollen seasons of some allergenic plants and to determine the effect of meteorological factors on the content of pollen grains in the bioaerosol in 2021 in Kielce, Poland.

Material and methods:
In relation to selected meteorological parameters, the length of the total and main pollen season, the sum of daily pollen grain concentrations in the season, the peak pollen concentration, and the number of days with values exceeding the species-specific threshold concentrations, were determined.

Hazel and alder pollen were the first to appear in the air of Kielce. The longest pollen season was observed for birch, while hazel was characterized by the shortest season. The alder pollen release was intense, with the highest maximum concentration of pollen grains. The study revealed a significant influence of the maximum air temperature on the dynamics of hazel, alder and poplar pollen release. Birch pollen release was significantly correlated with the average air humidity. The concentration of alder and birch pollen grains also depended on rainfall intensity. The wind force had a significant impact on the pollen season of plants.

There were various relationships between the meteorological factors and the content of pollen grains in the air. The wind speed and temperature had the greatest impact on plant pollen release, with birch and alder being particularly sensitive to weather conditions.

This work was supported by a research project of the Jan Kochanowski Uniwersity in Kielce, grant No. SUPB.RN.22.133.
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