Hope of patients in the terminal phase of cancer and place of residence
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Chair of Internal Medicine and Department of Internal Medicine in Nursing, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
MOW Warsaw, OTS Lublin, Poland
Department of Medical Informatics and Statistics with E-learning Lab, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Corresponding author
Marian Jędrych   

Medical University of Lublin Department of Medical Informatics and Statistics with E-learning Lab
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2019;26(4):636-643
The aim of the study is to compare the hope of rural and urban inhabitants in the terminal stage of a neoplastic disease covered by stationary hospice care.

Material and methods:
The study was carried out among patients in the terminal phase of a neoplastic disease. They were patients of both 24-hour and daily palliative and hospice care units throughout the country. The study group consisted of 246 patients, average age – 59.5, the youngest respondent was 18 and the oldest – 90. The B. L. Block (NCN-36) test, prepared for people struggling with serious life-threatening diseases, was used. Comparison of the results with regard to the place of residence was based on the test Friedman ANOVA and Kendall compatibility factor. The general comparison of hope in individual dimensions and globally with the division into the degree of urbanization, was based on the Kruskal-Wallis test.

On the basis of factor analysis, 4 scales constructed from 8 items branch were distinguished. The following scales are used to study hope in the situational dimension – health, the telek-temporal dimension – goals, the spiritual dimension – religious beliefs and in the emotional-affective (affective) dimension – motivations.

The strength of hope in people in the terminal phase of cancer, residing in villages, settlements, small, medium and large cities, was similar and depended on its magnitude. Of all the manifestations of hope, the greatest variation in results occurred in the subjects when they encountered serious problems and difficulties. The inhabitants of medium-sized cities were characterized by a higher hope at that time.

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