REVIEW PAPER
COVID-19 control measures in correctional facilities of selected countries – A literature overview
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Health Economics and Medical Law, Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
2
School of Public Health, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
3
Faculty of Engineering and Management, University of Ecology and Management, Warsaw, Poland
4
Medical Faculty, Lazarski University, Warsaw, Poland
5
Subdepartment of Social Medicine and Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
6
National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Mariola Borowska   

Department of Health Economics and Medical Law, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Jana Nielubowicza, 02-097, Warsaw, Poland
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most significant public health challenges for this generation. Governments have been forced to undertake different measures to constrain the spread of the virus and protect the people. Restrictive and other measures have also been taken in correctional facilities to control the epidemiological situation.

Objective:
The aims of this review are: 1) to contribute to knowledge by providing an overview of anti-COVID-19 measures that have been undertaken by the proper authorities in a few selected countries to control the epidemiological situation in prison; 2) to demonstrate proposals made in this respect by international organizations and scientific institutions and 3) to complete the most important bibliographical items for further studies.

Review methods:
A literature review was carried out of international scientific and grey literature published between 30.01.2020 and 30.07.2021 (with some exemptions). In every correctional system in the countries under scrutiny, the proper authorities introduced many measures to control the epidemiological situation from the very beginning of the pandemic.

Summary:
The COVD – pandemic impacts almost all aspects of social and individual life. Governments were forced to undertake different measures to constrain the spread of the virus. Restrictive and other measures also had to be taken in correctional systems, where more than ten million people are held worldwide. The measures introduced differed regarding details such as time, scope and range, but were generally similar to solutions proposed by organisations such as the WHO or CDC. In most countries, the discussion regarding the reform of the legal system have been observed. One of the most discussed issues was the problem of decarceration.

 
REFERENCES (51)
1.
Dutkiewicz J, Mackiewicz B, Lemieszek MK. COVID-19 Possible interelations with respiratory comorbidities caused by occupational exposure to various hazardous bioeaerosols. Part I. Occurance, epidemiology and presumed origin of the pandemic. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2020;27(4):491-504.
 
2.
Goodwin L, Hayward T, Krishan P, et al. Which factors influence the extent of indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2? A rapid evidence review. J Glob Health. 2021 Apr 3;11:10002. doi: 10.7189/jogh.11.10002.
 
3.
Król Z, Szymański P, Bochnia A, et al. Transformation of a large multi-specialty hospital into na dedicated COVID-19 centre during the coronavirus pandemic. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2020;27(2):201-206.
 
4.
Walmsley R, World prison population list. Twelfth Edition. World Prison Brief, Institute for Criminal Policy Research, 2015.
 
5.
Fazel S, Hayes AJ, Bartellas K, et al. Ment al health of prisoners, prevalence, adverse outcomes and interventions. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;(3):871-878.
 
6.
Zhong S, Senior M, Yu R, et al. Risk factors for suicide in prison: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Public Health. 2020; (6):164-174.
 
7.
Augustynowicz A, Wójcik M, Bachurska B, et al. COVID-19 Infection prevention in prisons and jails in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2021; 28(4):621-626.
 
8.
Beaudry G, Zhong S, Whiting D, et al. Managing outbreaks of highly contagious diseases in prisons: a systematic review. BMJ Glob Health. 2020;5(e003201). DOI:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003201.
 
9.
Word Health Organization region al Office for Europe, Preparedness, prevention and control of Covid – 19 in prison and other places of detention. Interim guidance. 15 March 2020.
 
10.
UNODC, WHO, UNAIDS and OHCHR join statement on COVID-19 in prisons and other closed settings. Geneva 13 May 2020.
 
11.
Sanchez JA, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Response to COVI-19. Human Rights Brief. 2020; 24(1): 2-4.
 
12.
Amnesty International, Forgotten behind bars.Covid-19 and prisons. London 2021.
 
13.
Penal Reform International, Coronavirus. Preventing harm and human rights violations in criminal justice systems. London, 14 July 2020.
 
14.
Burki T, Prisons are "in no way equipped" to deal with COVID-19. Lancet. 2020;395(10234):1411-1412. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30984-3.
 
15.
Cloud DH, Ahalt C, Augustine D, et al. Medical isolation and solitary confinement. Balancing Health and Humanity in US Jails and Prisons during COVID-19. J Gen Intern Med. 2020;35(9):2538-2742.
 
16.
Hawks L, Woolhandler S, Mc Cormick D, COVID-19 in Prison and Jails in the United States JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(8): 1041-1042.
 
17.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 Guidance for Correctional Facilities. https://www.cdc/community,2020..., access 19 August 2021.
 
18.
Williams BA, Ahalt C, Cloud D, et al. Correctional facilities in the shadow of Covid-19. Unique challenges and proposed solutions. Health Affairs, 16 March 2020; https://www.healthaffairs.org/...; access 23 August 2021.
 
19.
Barsky BA, Reinhart E, Farmer P, et al. Vaccination plus Decarceration – Stopping COVID-19 in Jails and Prisons. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(17):1583-1585.
 
20.
Barnet E, Ahalt C, Wiliams B. Prisons: Amplifiers of the COVID-19 Pandemic Hiding in Plain Sight. AJPH. 2020;110(7):964-966.
 
21.
Akiyama MJ, Spaulding AC, Rich JD, Flattening the Curve for Incarcerated Populations-Covid-19 in Jails and Prisons. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(22):2075-2077.
 
22.
Franco-Paredes C, Jankousky K, Schultz J, et al. COVID-19 in jails and prisons: A neglected infection in a marginalized population. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jun 22;14(6):e0008409. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008409.
 
23.
Macmadu A, Berk J, Kaplowitz E, et al. Covid-19 and mass incarceration: a call for urgent action. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5(11):e571-572.
 
24.
Barnet E, Ahalt C, Williams B, Amplifiers of the Covid-19 pandemic Hiding in plain sight. AJPH. 2020; 110(7):964-966.
 
25.
Sapers H, The case for prison depopulation: Prison health, public safety and the pandemic. J Community Health. 2020;5(2). DOI.org/10.35502/jcswb.136.
 
26.
Vest N, Johnson O, Nowotny K, et al. Prison Population Reductions and COVID-19: A Latent Profile Analysis Synthesizing Recent Evidence from the Texas State Prison System. J Urban Health. 2021; 98(1):53-58.
 
27.
Hagan LM, Williams SP, Spaulding AC, et al. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in 16 Prisons and Jails - Six Jurisdictions, United States, April-May 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(33):1139-1143.
 
28.
Wang EA, Western B, Bacers EP, et al. Decarcerating Correctional Facilities during COVID-19. Advancing Health, Equity, and Safety. National Academies Press. 2020;Washington, DC.
 
29.
Watson C, Warmbrod K, Vahey RA, et al. COVID-19 the UN Criminal Justice System: Evidence for public Health Measures to Reduce Risk. Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security, 2020; Baltimore.
 
30.
Novisky MA, Narvey CS, Semenza DC, Institutional Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic in American Prisons. Victims Offenders. 2020; 15(7-8):1244-1261.
 
31.
Nowotny KM, Seide K, Brinkley-Rubinstein L, Risk of COVID-19 infection among prison staff in the United States. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1036); DOI.org/10.1186/s12889-021-110....
 
32.
Ricciardelli R, Bucerius S, Tetrault J, et al. Correctional services during and beyond COVID-19. Royal Society of Canada. 2021.
 
33.
Rapisarda SS, Byrne J, Marmolejo L, North America and the Caribbean. Victims Offenders. 2020;15(7-8): 1234-43.
 
34.
Nora Gomez Thorres, The Miami Voice, May 01, 2020.
 
35.
Marmolejo L, Barberi D, Bergman M, et al. Responding to COVID-19 in Latin America. The Cases of Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. Victims Offenders. 2020;15(7-8):1062-1085.
 
36.
Payne JL, Hanley N, COVID-19 and Corrections in Australia: A Summary Review of the Available data and Literature. Victims Offenders. 2020;15(7-8):1367-1384.
 
37.
Stewart C, Tomossy GF, Lamont S, et al. COVID-19 and Australian Prisons: Human Rights, Risks, and Responses. J. Bioethical Inq. 2020;17:663-667.
 
38.
Murray L, Kras KR. We must go hard and we must go early: How New Zealand Halted Coronavirus in the community and corrections. Victims Offenders. 2020;15(7-8):1385-1395.
 
39.
Seungeun Lee C, South Korea’s Response regarding Mitigating the COVID -19 Crisis behind Bars. Victims Offenders . 2020;15(7-8):996-1008.
 
40.
Goh KK, Lu ML, Jou S, Zero confirmed cases: The ways we curb COVID-19 in Taiwanese prisons. J Glob Health. 2020;10(2):020377. doi: 10.7189/jogh.10.020377.
 
41.
Dmello JR, Ranjan S, Lock Unlock: The Impact of Covid-19 on Health Security in Pakistan and Indian Prisons. Victims Offenders. 2020;15(7-8):970-987.
 
42.
Le Marcis F, Epidemics and Covid-19 in African prisons: Toward an inclusive approach of health. In Sante Public. 2020;32(5-6):583-587.
 
43.
Nweze VN, Anosike UG, Ogunwusi JF, et al. Prison health during the COVID-19 era in Africa. Public Health Pract (Oxf). 2021;2:100083. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhip.2021.100083.
 
44.
Rapisarda SS, Byrne JM, The Impact of COVID-19 Outbreaks in the Prisons, Jails, and Community Correction Systems Throughout Europe. Victims Offenders. 2020;15(7-8):1105-1112.
 
45.
Jacobson J, Heard C, Fair H, Understanding and reducing the use of imprisonment in ten countries. Institute of Criminal Policy Research. Birkbeck, University of London. June 2021.
 
46.
Abei MF, Tiago MM, Prisons and prisoners in Europe in pandemic times: An evaluation of the short-term impact of the COVID-19 on prisons populations. University of Lausanne.http://www.antoniocasella.eu/n..., access 23 August 2021.
 
47.
Brennan PK, Response Taken to Mitigate COVID-19 in Prisons in England and Wales. Victims Offenders. 2020;15 (7-8):1215-1233.
 
48.
Dunkel F, The Impact of Covid-19 on Prison and Penal Policy in Germany. Victims Offenders. 2020; 15(7-8):1113-1123.
 
49.
Gorgitano E, Martufi A, Belgium – So far, so good? Health and prisons in Belgium during Covid-19 pandemic. Antigone. 2020;XV(1):17-22.
 
50.
Cingolani M, Caraceni L, Cannovo N, The COVID-19 Epidemic and the Prison System in Italy. J Correct Health Care. 2021;27(1):3-7.
 
51.
Ovchinnikov S, The Penitentiary System of Russia dewing the COVID-19 Pandemic. Victims Offenders. 2020;15(7-8):1148-1155.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966