Endocrine disrupting micropollutants in water and their effects on human fertility and fecundity
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Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Grzegorz Raszewski   

Institute of Rural Health, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2022;29(4):477–482
Introduction and objective:
Micropollutants (MPs) are defined as persistent and biologically-active substances which occur in the environment in trace amounts, mainly as a result of industrial processes and human domestic activity. The published experimental data prove that, among other things, MPs present in the environment may also affect and disturb hormonal balance in humans, resulting in impairment of the reproductive function. In addition to the many MPs disrupting endocrine function described in literature and which exert an effect on human reproductive function, the study presents a review of current literature concerning the exposure to Bisphenol A, phthalates, organochlorine pesticides, and pyrethroids.

Review methods:
Two independent authors searched in PubMed and Google scholar (any date until September 2022) for studies concerning chosen endocrine-disrupting MPs in water and their effects on human fertility and fecundity.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
The review of the literature showed that EDMs present in the environment may create risk in the prenatal and postnatal development following premature birth, and exert a negative effect on fertility and reproductive functions in humans, especially during the perinatal period.

The presented review of literature indicates a negative effect of exposure to BPA, phthalates, OC and OP pesticides, as well as to pyrethroids, regarding human reproductive health. It also demonstrated considerable differences according to gender. Generally, there is a definitely stronger evidence for the presence of a cause-effect relationship between the discussed EDMs and a decreased fertility and fecundity in males. The negative effect of exposure to Bisphenol A, phthalates, selected organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroids appears to be quite well documented.

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