Risk factors of postural defects in children at school age
More details
Hide details
Children’s Orthopaedics Department, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Informatics and Health Statistics, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Orthopaedic Department, University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic
Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, University of Economics and Innovation, Lublin, Poland
Experimental Neuropathophysiology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Paediatric Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Clinic, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Outpatient Clinic for Motor Organs Treatment ‘GERONIMO’, Tarnów, Poland
Michał Latalski   

Children’s Orthopaedics Department, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(3):583–587
Introduction and objective:
Postural defects increasingly more often concern children and adolescents at school age. The lack of prophylaxis and neglecting adequate procedures may lead to limitations of physical and motor abilities, back pain, or the development of severe spinal deformities. Recognition of the risk factors conducive to the occurrence of the disorder allows the creation of adequate conditions for the psychomotor development of children, as well as the elaboration and implementation of specified educational schemes directed at schools and parents. The study concerned determination of the risk factors for the development of postural defects in school age children.

Material and Methods:
The study was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey. The study group covered 380 children aged 14 (175 girls (46.1%) and 205 boys (53.9%)) – selected at random from schools in eastern Poland and the Czech Republic. The significance of the relationships between variables was investigated by means of chi-square test for independence. The differences between the empirical and theoretical sample distribution was examined by means of chi-square goodness-of-fit test. The significance level was set at p=0.05.

The BMI in the population examined was 20.2, on average (from 14–39). Respondents living in rural areas and small towns constituted 57.63% of the study group, while inhabitants of medium-size and large cities – 42.37%. The majority of children in the study had been previously examined for the occurrence of postural defects (74.2%), whereas nearly every tenth child had never undergone such an examination. As many as 16.3% of adolescents did not know whether they had ever participated in a screening test. A defect was detected in 14.7% of children, in 56.6% no asymmetry was detected, while approximately 30% were not aware if their body posture was normal or not.

1. There is a relationship between physical activity of the child and the occurrence of postural defects. 2. There is a relationship between the economic standard of the family and awareness of own state of health. 3. There is a need for the creation of a system of education for parents and children concerning postural defects and risks resulting from these defects.

van Balen LC, Dijkstra LJ, Hadders-Algra M. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in typically developing infants from 4 to 18 months. Exp Brain Res. 2012 Jul; 220(2): 109–19.
WINDLE RW. Posture and growth. Acta Physiother Rheumatol Belg. 1954 May-Jun; 9(3): 79–83.
Seefeldt V, Malina RM, Clark MA. Factors affecting levels of physical activity in adults. Sports Med. 2002; 32(3): 143–68.
Prashar A, Dudek W, Prystupa A, Mosiewicz J. Clinical and theoretical contrast of common non-septic causes of bone degeneration. JPCCR 2012; 6(1): 7–9.
Zeller M. Postural impairments-a disease of civilization. Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz Prophyl Ergonomie. 1982 Sep;32(9):324–6.
Payne WK 3rd, Ogilvie JW, Resnick MD, Kane RL, Transfeldt EE, Blum RW. Does scoliosis have a psychological impact and does gender make a difference? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997; 22(12): 1380–4.
Weinstein SL, Zavala DC, Ponseti IV. Idiopathic scoliosis: long-term follow-up and prognosis in untreated patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981; 63: 702–712.
Zatońska K, Regulska-Ilow B, Janik-Koncewicz K, Różańska D, Ilow R, Szuba A, et al. Prevalence of obesity – baseline assessment in the prospective cohort ‘PONS’ study Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 246–250.
Serratto M. Interaction between obesity and physical fitness in Urban children. Circulation 2004; 109: 71–144; P304.
Podeszwa DA, Stanko KJ, Mooney JF 3rd, Cramer KE, Mendelow MJ. An analysis of the functional health of obese children and adolescents utilizing the PODC instrument. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006; 26: 140–143.
Manoff EM, Banffy MB, Winell JJ. Relationship between body mass index and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005; 25: 744–746.
Dietz WH Jr, Gross WL, Kirkpatrick JA Jr. Blount disease (tibia vara): another skeletal disorder associated with childhood obesity. J Pediatr. 1982; 101: 735–737.
Bagust A, Walley T. An alternative to body mass index for standardizing body weight for stature. QJM Int J Med. 2000; 93: pp. 589–596.
World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity – Preventing and managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation (WHO Technical Report Series no. 894), 2004.
Lobstein T, Frelut ML. Prevalence of overweight among children in Europe. Obes Rev. 2003; 4: 195–200.
Suliburska J, Bogdański P, Pupek-Musialik D, Głod-Nawrocka M, Krauss H, Piątek J. Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(1): 135–139.
Carroquino MJ. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, ENHIS, 2009, FACT SHEET 2.3 December 2009, CODE: RPG2_Hous_E2 pdf_file/0005/96980/2.3.-Prevalence-of-overweight-and-obesity- EDITED_layouted_V3.pdf (access: 2012.11.10).
Branca F, Nikogosian H, Lobstein T. The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response, World Health Organization 2007. (access: 2012.11.10).
Nery LS, Halpern R, Nery PC, Nehme KP, Stein AT. Prevalence of scoliosis among school students in a town in southern Brazil. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010; 128(2): 69–73.
Wojtyła A, Biliński P, Bojar I, Wojtyła C. Zaburzenia odżywiania u polskich gimnazjalistow Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2011; 92(2): 343–350.
Trobisch P, Suess O, Schwab F. Idiopathic scoliosis. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010 Dec; 107(49): 875–83.
McMaster M, Lee AJ, Burwell RG. Physical activities of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) compared with a control group: implications for etiology and possible prevention. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006; 88-B (Supp II): 225.
Latalski M, Fatyga M, Kuzaka R, Bylina J, Trzpis T, Kopytiuk R, et al. Socio-economic conditionings of families with children treated due to scoliosis in Eastern Poland Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(3): 513–521.
Sygit K, Kołłątaj W, Goździewska M, Sygit M, Kołłątaj B, Karwat ID. Lifestyle as an important factor in control of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren from the rural environment Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(3): 557–561.
Mörl F, Bradl I. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. Lumbar posture and muscular activity while sitting during office work. 2012 Nov 1. pii: S1050–6411(12)00172–1. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.10.002.
Kapka-Skrzypczak L, Bergier B, Diatczyk J, Niedźwiecka J, Biliński P, Wojtyła A. Dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults – a population based study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(2): 299–308.
Challenges in Adolescent Health Care: Workshop Report. 2007. Washington, D.C.: Committee on Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Guidelines for school health programs to promote lifelong healthy eating. J School Heath. 1997; 67(1): 9–26.
Nicklas TA, Baranowski T, Cullen KW, Berenson G. Eating patterns, dietary quality and obesity. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001; 20(6): 599–608.
Panasiuk L, Wdowiak L, Paprzycki P, Lukas W. Occurrence of overweight and obesity among adult rural population in Eastern Poland. Relationship between obesity and selected socio-economic factors. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008; 15(1): 149–52.
Wojtyła A, Bojar I, Boyle P, Zatoński W, Marcinkowski JT, Biliński P. Nutritional behaviours among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(1): 169–174.