RESEARCH PAPER
Exposure to environmental factors and relationship to allergic rhinitis and/or sthma
 
More details
Hide details
1
The State of Minas Gerais Hospital Foundation, João Penido Hospital, Juiz de Fora, Brazil
2
Federal University of São João del-Rei, Health Sciences Centre, Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, Divinópolis, Brazil
3
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Medical School, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
4
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Dentistry School, Department of Surgery, Pathology and Clinical, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
5
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Exact Sciences Institute, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
6
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014;21(1):59–63
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objectives. Studies analyzing risk factors, multiple indoor and outdoor factors related to asthma and/or allergic rhinitis (AR) in childhood, are very rare. The presented study was carried out to simultaneously assess host-related, indoor and particulate matter exposure with current allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or asthma in children (6–7 years) and adolescents (13–14 years). Material and methods. The method was a cross-sectional population-based study in which participants were diagnosed by means of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. Results. Exposure to indoor risk factors were verified in 1,302 individuals, in which the prevalence of AR, asthma and ARasthma comorbidity were 37.3%, 28.4%, and 16%, for children and 31.5%, 16.2%, and 10.5% for adolescents, respectively. Smoking during pregnancy was associated with current asthma (OR=1.5), second-hand smoking with AR-asthma comorbidity (OR=1.4) and visible mold on the walls with current AR, asthma, and AR-asthma comorbidity (OR=1.6). In a subgroup of 590 children, in addition to the indoor risk factors, exposure to PM10 was assessed. In this joint analysis, there was association with the same previously mentioned risk factors (p values ≤ 0.5) and a negative association to PM10 (p ≤ 0.002). Conclusion. The results suggest that avoidance of smoking during pregnancy, second-hand smoking and exposure to mould at home can contribute to reducing current AR and/or current asthma. Exposure to PM10 was not associated with the prevalence rate of these diseases.
 
REFERENCES (25)
1.
Worldwide variations in the prevalence of ashma symptoms: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. ISAAC Steering Committee. Eur Respir J. 1998; 12: 315–325.
 
2.
Wright AL, Holberg Cj, Halonen M, Martinez FD, Morgan W, Taussig LM. Epidemiology of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis in childhood. Pediatrics. 1994; 6: 895–901.
 
3.
Jaakkola JJK, Hwang BF, Jaakkola MS. Home dampness and molds as determinants of allergic rhinitis in childhood: a 6 year, populationbased cohort study. Pediatrics. 2001; 108: 1149–1504.
 
4.
Biagini JM, LeMasters GK, Ryan PH, Levin L, Reponen T, Bernstein DI et al. Environmental risk factors of rhinitis in early infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006; 17: 278–284.
 
5.
Arshad SH, Tariq SM, Matthews S, Hakim E. Sensitization to common allergens and its association with allergic disorders at age 4 years: a whole population birth cohort study. Pediatrics. 2001; 108(8): 33.
 
6.
Korppi M, Hyvrinen M, Kotaniemi-Syrjnen A, Piipo-Savolainen E, Reijonen T. Early exposure and sensitization to cat and dog: different effects on asthma risk after wheezing in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008; 19: 696–701.
 
7.
Han YY, Lee YL, Guo YL. Indoor environmental risk factors and seasonal variation of childhood asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009; 20: 748–756.
 
8.
Tsai CH, Huang JH, Hwang BF, Lee YL. Household environmental tobacco smoke and risks of asthma, wheeze and bronchitic symptoms among children in Taiwan. Respir Res. 2010; 11: 11–20.
 
9.
Torrent M, Sunyer J, Garcia R, Harris J, Iturriaga MV, Puig C et al. Early-life allergen exposure and atopy, asthma and wheeze up to 6 years of age. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001; 176: 446–453.
 
10.
Von Mutius E, Schmid S, PASTURE Study Group. The PASTURE project: EU support for the improvement of knowledge about risck factors and preventive factors for atopy in Europe. Allergy. 2006; 61: 407–413.
 
11.
Rios JLM, Boechat JL, Sant´Anna CS, França AT. Atmospheric pollution and the prevalence of asthma: study among schoolchildren of 2 areas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004; 92: 629–634.
 
12.
Gehring U, Wijga AH, Brauer M, Fischer P, de Jongste JC, Kerkhof M et al. Traffic-related air pollution and the development of asthma and allergies during the first 8 years of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010; 181: 596–603.
 
13.
Von Mutius E, Fritzsch C, Weiland SK, Röll G, Magnussen H. Prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders among children in United Germany: a descriptive comparison. BMJ. 1992; 305: 1395–1399.
 
14.
Lee YL, Lin YC, Hsiue TR, Hwang BF, Guo YL. Indoor and outdoor environmental exposures, parental atopy and physician diagnosed asthma in Taiwanese schoolchildren. Pediatrics. 2003; 112: 389–396.
 
15.
Kasznia-Kocot J, Kowalska M, Górny RL, Niesler A, Wypych-Ślusarska A. Environmental risk factors for respiratory symptoms and childhood asthma. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010; 17: 221–229.
 
16.
Martins PC, Valente J, Papoila AL, Caires I, Araújo-Martins J, Mata P et al. Airways changes related to air pollution exposure in wheezing children. Eur Respir J. 2012; 39: 246–253.
 
17.
Solé D, Wandalsen GF, Nunes ICC, Naspitz CK, ISAAC – Grupo Brasileiro. Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema among Brazilian children and adolescents identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) – Phase 3. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2006; 82: 341–346.
 
18.
R Development Core Team. A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna 2010. http://www.R-project.org (access: 20.09.2012).
 
19.
Andrade CR, Ibiapina CC, Alvim CG, Fontes MJF, Lasmar LMLBF, Camargos PAM. Asthma and allergic rhinitis co-morbidity: a crosssectional questionnaire study on adolescents aged 13–14 years. Prim Care Respir J. 2008; 17: 222–225.
 
20.
McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Islam T, Gauderman WJ, London SJ et al. Indoor risk factors for asthma in a prospective study of adolescents. Epidemiology. 2002; 13: 288–295.
 
21.
Engvall K, Norrby C, Norback D. Asthma symptoms in relation to building dampness and odour in older multifamily houses in Stockholm. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2001; 5: 468–477.
 
22.
Antova T, Pattenden S, Brunekreef B, Heinrich J, Rudnai P, Forastiere F et al. Exposure to indoor mould and children’s respiratory health in the PATY study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008; 62: 708–714.
 
23.
Gehring U, Leaderer BP, Heinrich J, Oldenwening M, Giovannangelo MECA, Nordling E et al. Comparison of parental reports of smoking and residential air nicotine concentrations in children. Occup Environ Med. 2006; 63: 766–772.
 
24.
Von Mutius E, Sherrill DL, Fritzsch C, Martinez FD, Lebowitz MD. Air pollution and upper respiratory symptoms in children from East Germany. Eur Respir J. 1995; 8: 723–728.
 
25.
Anderson HR, Ruggles R, Pandey KD, Kapetanakis V, Brunekreef B, Lai CKW et al. Ambient particulate pollution and the world-wide prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children: Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Occup Environ Med. 2010; 67: 293–300.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966