Current state of knowledge regarding bacterially-induced abortion in sheep
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Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Warsaw, Poland
University Centre of Veterinary Medicine UJ-UR, Kraków,Poland
Anna Didkowska   

Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW),, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787, Warsaw, Poland
Introduction and objective:
Abortion can occur in sheep, among others, in response to bacterial infection. The present article reviews the latest reports on the various economic and health consequences for the herd, other animals and humans.

Review methods:
Two independent reviewers searched in PubMed and Google scholar (any date to September 2021) for studies concerning bacterial abortion in sheep. Keywords for the search strategy were: bacteria, sheep, and abortion. Papers were reviewed for scientific merit and relevance as well as for current information.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
In the reviewed literature, much attention was paid to infections by Brucella spp., Campylobacter spp., Coxiella burnetti, Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. As the presence of these bacteria varies according to region, any differential diagnosis should consider the most common pathogens in a given area. It also should be noted that most of the described pathogens have zoonotic potential and, as such, it is extremely important to observe safety rules when assisting in delivering births and when dealing with stillbirths.

Identification of the etiological agent seems to be a key factor in the management of abortions, especially in flocks where their numbers appear to be increasing; this is needed to manage and control disease in the flock, and to protect humans and other animal species on the farm. Most studies use molecular methods as diagnostic tools, mainly PCR, and use both foetuses and placenta as research material.

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