RESEARCH PAPER
Bovine tuberculosis in a Reeves’s muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) in a private animal collection in Poland – management and legal implications
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
2
District Veterinary Inspectorate in Piaseczno, Warsaw, Poland
3
Veterinary Office Michał Michalski, Gdynia, Poland
4
Department of Microbiology, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Małgorzata Bruczyńska   

Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) remains an emerging problem in animals, and particular care is required in zoos to protect the health of the public visitors (zoonosis) and the unique animals kept in them, which may be endangered species. In larger zoos, the problem is controlled to a greater extent than in private animal collections. Such places pose a significant risk as visitors make direct contact with animals. The article presents the management, diagnostics of a case of BTB in a ‘private animal collection’, and discusses the legal implications.

Material and methods:
Briefly, a post-mortem examination was performed in two Reeves’s muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) in the private animal collection in Poland. Due to the suspicion of BTB, microbiological examination on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media and subsequent genotyping was performed.

Results:
Post-mortem examination revealed BTB-like lesions. Tests showed that the animals were infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

Conclusions:
Taking into account the lack of obligation to monitor infectious zoonotic diseases, the often unknown origin of animals and, frequently, very close contact between people and animals in private animal collections, there is a need to clarify the legal obligations of owners of these private animal collections in Poland to ensure public health protection. The findings of this investigation demonstrate that due to the lack of precise epidemiological data for BTB, it is difficult to define the epidemiological status of private animal collections, and further management depends on the owner’s cooperation with veterinarians.

 
REFERENCES (27)
1.
Stephens N, Vogelnest L, Lowbridge C, et al. J. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) to a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and humans in an Australian zoo. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141(7):1488–97. https://doi: 10.1017/S095026881300068X.
 
2.
Quadri NS, Brihn A, Shah JA, et al. Bovine Tuberculosis: A Re-emerging Zoonotic Infection. J Agromedicine. 2021;26(3):334–339. doi: 10.1080/1059924X.2020. 1771497.
 
3.
Gong W, Yang Y, Luo Y, et al. An alert of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of rhesus macaques in a wild zoo in China. Exp Anim. 2017;66(4):357–365. doi: 10.1538/expanim.16–0095.
 
4.
Rodriguez-Campos S, Smith NH, Boniotti MB, et al. Overview and phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms: implication for diagnostics and legislation of bovine tuberculosis. Res Vet Sci. 2014;97:5-S19. https://doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2014.02.009.
 
5.
Delahay RJ, Smith GC, Barlow AM, et al. Bovine tuberculosis infection in wild mammals in the South-West region of England: a survey of prevalence and a semi-quantitative assessment of the relative risks to cattle. Vet J. 2007;173(2):287–301. https://doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.11.011.
 
6.
Parsons, SD, Drewe JA, Gey van Pittius NC, et al. Novel cause of tuberculosis in meerkats, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(12):2004–7. https://doi: 10.3201/eid1912.130268.
 
7.
Krajewska M, Weiner M, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E. Animal tuberculosis as a potential danger to men. Health Problems of Civilization. 2017;11(1):10–14.
 
8.
Krajewska M, Kozińska M, Zwolska Z, et al. Human as a source of tuberculosis for cattle. First evidence of transmission in Poland. Vet Microbiol. 2012;159:269–271.
 
9.
Kozińska M, Krajewska-Wędzina M, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E. Mycobacterium caprae – the first case of the human infection in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2020;27(1):151–153. https://doi: 10.26444/aaem/108442.
 
10.
Thoen C, Lobue P, de Kantor I, et al. The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis. Vet. Microbiol. 2006;25:112(2–4):339–45. https://doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.11.047.
 
11.
Gong W, Yang Y, Luo Y, et al. An alert of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of rhesus macaques in a wild zoo in China. Exp Anim. 2017;66(4):357–365. https://doi: 10.1538/expanim.16–0095.
 
12.
Zlot, A, Vines J, Nystrom L, et al. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Three Zoo Elephants and a Human Contact – Oregon 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;64(52): 1398–402. https://doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6452a2.
 
13.
Montali RJ, Mikota SK, Cheng LI. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in zoo and wildlife species. Rev Sci Tech. 2001;20(1):291–303. https://doi: 10.20506/rst.20.1.1268.
 
14.
Kozińska M, Zwolska Z, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E. Transmission of drug-resistant TB among family members. Post N Med. 2011;10: 824–830.
 
15.
Akkerman OW, van der Werf TS, Rietkerk F, et al. Retraction Note: Infection of great apes and a zoo keeper with the same Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotype. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2020;209(6):705. https://doi: 10.1007/s00430–020–00689–9.
 
16.
Olea-Popelka F, Muwonge A, Perera A, et al. Zoonotic tuberculosis in human beings caused by Mycobacterium bovis-a call for action. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):e21-e25. https://doi: 10.1016/S1473–3099(16)30139–6.
 
17.
Sanou A, Tarnagda Z, Kanyala E, et al. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(10):e3142. https://doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003142.
 
18.
Malama S, Johansen TB, Muma JB, et al. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia. Vet Med Int. 2014;2014:187842. https://doi: 10.1155/2014/187842.
 
19.
Didkowska A, Krajewska-Wędzina M, Orłowska B, et al. Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium spp. Isolated from Cattle and Wildlife in Poland, 2021, https://doi: 10.5772/intechopen.96695 In: Molecular Epidemiology Study of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex, IntechOpen, London, UK.
 
20.
Krajewska M, Załuski M, Zabost A, et al. Tuberculosis in Antelopes in a Zoo in Poland--Problem of Public Health. Pol J Microbiol. 2015;64(4):395–7. https://doi: 10.5604/17331331.1185242.
 
21.
Krajewska-Wędzina M, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E, Weiner, et al. Treatment for active tuberculosis in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in a Zoo and potential consequences for public health – Case report. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018;25(4):593–595. https://doi: 10.26444/aaem/75685.
 
22.
Ordinance of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of July 4, 2017 on the method of keeping documentation related to combating infectious animal diseases (NS. Of Laws of 2017, item 1388) [in Polish].
 
23.
Krajewska-Wędzina M, Didkowska A, Sridhara AA, et al. Transboundary tuberculosis: Importation of alpacas infected with Mycobacterium bovis from the United Kingdom to Poland and potential for serodiagnostic assays in detecting tuberculin skin test false-negative animals. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67(3):1306–1314. https://doi: 10.1111/tbed.13471.
 
24.
Bielecki W, Amarowicz J, Hławiczka M, et al. Monitoring the health of the European bison population as an element of species protection. European Bison Conservation Newsletter, 2014;7:43–50.[in Polish].
 
25.
Regulation (EU) 2016/429 of the European Parliament and of the Council of March 9, 2016 on transmissible animal diseases and amending and repealing certain acts in the field of animal health (“Animal Health Law”) Journal of Laws of the European Union L No. 84, p. 1, as amended. Accessed October 27, 2021. ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/....
 
26.
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1882 of 3 December 2018 on the application of certain disease prevention and control rules to categories of listed diseases and establishing a list of species and groups of species posing a considerable risk for the spread of those listed diseases. Journal of Laws of the European Union L No. 308, p. 21, as amended. Accessed November 27, 2021. ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_... 1882/oj.
 
27.
Macedo R, Isidro J, Gomes MC, et al. Animal-to-human transmission of Mycobacterium pinnipedii. Eur Respir J. 2020;56(6):2000371. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00371–2020.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966