Q fever is a dangerous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The disease occurs mainly in ruminants and may cause reproductive system disorders, including abortions in sheep. Therefore, following an increase in the abortion rate in a village in the Małopolska Region which was investigated for C. burnetii. In 2019 and 2021. Blood was collected from 177 ewes from seven herds, as well as vaginal swabs and milk from 100 ewes. The obtained serum samples were tested with commercial serological ELISA, and the swabs and milk subjected to PCR testing. Of the 177 tested sheep, 23 (13%) were seropositive. The risk of seropositivity was positively correlated with age, but this relationship was weak. All samples were PCR negative. Hence, C. burnetii seems not to be the main cause of abortions in this region. However, due to the high consumption of unpasteurized sheep milk products in this region, further research is needed, particularly regarding agents with zoonotic potential.
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