Influence of chlorinated water on the development of allergic diseases – An overview
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Department of Gastroenterology, Metabolic and Internal Diseases and Dietetics, Poznań, Poland
Department of Allergology, Clinical Immunology and Internal Diseases, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Corresponding author
Alina Kanikowska   

Department of Gastroenterology, Metabolic and Internal Diseases and Dietetics, Przybyszewskiego 49, 60-355 Poznań, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018;25(4):651-655
Indoor swimming pools can be used all year round and serve for one of the most popular sport pursued for recreation. The positive effect of swimming arises in particular from the involvement of all the muscles of the body, decreasing the burden on the joints, as well as functional improvement of both the lungs and heart. Chlorine is typically used to disinfect swimming pool water and as a result the changes that take place lead to the formation of by-products, such as monochloramines (NH2Cl), dichloramines (NH2Cl2) i trichloramines (NH2Cl3), trihalogenometans (THM) or haloacetic acid (HAA). The highest concentration of these substances is just above the water surface and they may cause irritation of skin, eyes and mucosa of the respiratory tract. The toxic effect of high chlorine concentration and its side-products on the respiratory system is known, but the effect of low concentrations of these compounds is still not fully determined. Recent studies suggest that development of allergic diseases among swimmers may be increased by epithelial disorders driven by airway barrier dysfunction caused by chlorine irritation. Swimming in chlorinated water may be linked to symptoms of bronchial hyperreactivity, asthma and rhinitis especially in children, elite swimmers and employees of indoor swimming pools. Hypersensivity pneumonitis related to the use of swimming pools may manifest as a swimming pool or sauna user lung, most commonly caused by water polluting pathogens. The article summarizes recent data concerning the influence of chlorinated water on the development of allergic diseases.
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