Haematological parameters in postpartum women and their babies in Poland – comparison of urban and rural areas
More details
Hide details
Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland; Chief Sanitary Inspectorate, Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18(2):380-385
Anaemia is a serious health problem in the contemporary world which affects 24.8% of the total human population. It is especially frequent among pregnant women and children. Anaemia is considered as a risk factor of an unfavourable outcome of pregnancy. More than a half of the cases of anaemia, especially among pregnant women, are caused by iron deficiency. The prevalence of anaemia worldwide is especially high among the rural population. It is estimated that the incidence of anaemia after delivery is 4-27%. Anaemia occurring in pregnant women is the cause of anaemia in newborns after birth. The objective of the study was analysis of the haematological parameters of postpartum women and newborns, with particular consideration of the comparison between urban and rural areas. The studies were conducted with the use of questionnaire forms based on the project undertaken in the USA: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The survey was carried out on a single day, during the period 9-13 August 2010, in all hospitals in Poland where mothers were hospitalized with their newborns. The presented study was based on the replies concerning the results of whole blood count tests in mothers and their babies. The results of the study did not confirm any significant differences between Hct, Hb and RBC values between urban and rural mothers. In both cases, the Hct levels were at the lower limit of normal. Also, no differences with respect to the above-mentioned values were noted among the newborns, although the babies of urban mothers had a higher Hb level. The results of the studies indicate the lack of differences in the health of mothers and their newborn babies with respect to the urban or rural place of residence. Despite this, anaemia is associated with complications which are life-threatening for the mother and the baby; therefore, efforts should be undertaken in order to minimize this problem.
Benoist B, McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I, Cogswell M. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2008.
WHO/UNICEF/UNO. Iron defi ciency anaemia: Assessment, prevention and control. Report of a WHO/UNICEF/UNO Consultation. Geneva: WHO, 1998.
Sifakis S, Pharmakides G. Anaemia in pregnancy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;900:125-36.
de Alarcon PA, Werner EJ. Neonatal hematology. In : de Alarcon PA, Johnson MC, Werner EJ (Eds.). Erythropoiesis, red cells, and the approach to anaemia. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005:40-57.
Scholl TO. Iron status during pregnancy: setting the stage for mother and infant. Am J Clin Nutr 2005a;81:1218S-1222S.
Yip R. Iron. In: Bowman B, Russell RM, (Eds.). Present knowledge In nutrition. 8th ed. Washington DC, ILSI Press, 2001.p.311–318.
Perry GS, Yip R, Zyrkowski C. Nutritional risk factors among low income pregnant US women: Th e Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, 1979– 1993. Semin Perinatol 1995;19:211–21.
World Health Organization. Th e World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.
WHO/UNICEF/UNO. Iron defi ciency anaemia: assessment, prevention, and control. A guide for programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001.
WHO. Prevention and management of severe anaemia in pregnancy: report of a technical working group, Geneva, 20-22 May 1991 / Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme. Geneva: World Health Organization, Division of Family Health, 1993.
Hoque M, Kader SB, Hoque E. Prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in the Uthungulu health district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. S Afr Fam Pract 2007;49(6):16-20.
Al-Mehaisen L, Khader Y, Al-Kuran O, Abu Issa F, Amarin Z. Maternal anaemia in rural Jordan: room for improvement. Anaemia 2011;2011:381812.
Gadallah M, Rady M, Salem B, Aly E.M, Anwer W. Th e eff ect of nutritional intervention program on the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural areas of Belbis district-Sharkia GovernorateEgypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2002;77(3-4):261-73.
Hyder SM, Persson LA, Chowdhury M, Lonnerdal BO, Ekstron EC. Anaemia and iron defi ciency during pregnancy in rural Bangladesh. Public Health Nutr 2004;7(8):1065-70.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendation to prevent and control iron defi ciency in the United States. MMWR 1998;47(RR-3):12-3.
Atkinson L, Baxley E. Post partum fatigue. Am Fam Physician 1994;50(1):113–8.
Bodnar LM, Siega-Riz AM, Miller WC, Cogswell ME, McDonald T. Who should be screened for postpartum anaemia? An evaluation of current recommendations. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156(10):903-12.
Kapernick PS. Postpartum haemorrhage and the abnormal puerperium. In: Pernoll ML, Benson RC, editors. Current obstetric and gynaecologic diagnosis and treatment 1987. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange; 1987.p.524-40.
Bodnar LM, Scanlon KS, Freedman DS, Siega-Riz AM, Cogswell ME. High prevalence of postpartum anaemia among low-income women in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185(2):438-43.
Ekanem A, Etuk S, Samson-Akpan U. Th e infl uence of cultural practice on puerperal anaemia. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1996;55(2):169-70.
Harrison K. Maternal mortality in developing countries. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989;96:1-3.
Kumar R, SharmaA, Barik S, Kumar V. Maternal mortality inquiry in a rural community of North India. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1989;29(4):313-9.
Rosenfi eld A. Maternal mortality in developing countries - an ongoing but neglected ’epidemic’. JAMA 1989;262(3):376–9.
World Health Organization. Reduction of maternal mortality. A joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank statement. Geneva: WHO,1999.
Broche DE, Gay C, Armand-Brange S, Grangeass L, Terzibachian JJ. Severe anaemia in the immed iate post-partum period. Clinical practice and value of intravenous iron. Severe anaemia in the immediate postpartum period clinical practice and value of intravenous iron. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005;123:S21-S27.
Singla PN, Tyagi M, Shankar R, Dash D, Kumar A. Fetal iron status in maternal anaemia. Acta Paediatr 1996;85(11):1327-30.
Luchtman-Jones L, Schwartz AL, Wilson DB. Th e blood and hematopoietic system. In: Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ, editors. Neonatalperinatal medicine. Disorders of the fetus and infant. 7th ed. St. Louis MO: Mosby;2002.p.1182–254.
Bizzarro MJ, Colson E, Ehrenkranz RA. Diff erential diagnosis and management of anaemia in the newborn. Pediatr Clin North Am 2004;51(4):1087-107.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Normy laboratoryjne dla dzieci. https://www.pediatriccareonlin... DrugLookup/153930/0/normal_laboratory_values_for_children?amod=aap ea&login=true&nfstatus=401&nft oken=00000000-0000-0000-0000- 000000000000&nfstatusdescription=ERROR%3a+No+local+token (01.10.2010).
Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Defi nicja wsi. defi nicje_PLK_HTML.htm?id=POJ-4690.htm (01.10.2010).
Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Defi nicja miasta. pl/gus/defi nicje_PLK_HTML.htm?id=POJ-4689.htm.
Demographic Yearbook 2005. products/dyb/dyb2005/notestab06.pdf (01.10.2010).
Clark P, Greer IA. Hematology measurements in pregnancy. In: Clark P, Greer IA. Practical obstetric hematology. Abingdon, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.p.1.
McMullin MF, White R, Lappin T, Reeves J, MacKenzie G. Haemoglobin during pregnancy: relationship to erythropoietin and haematinic status. Eur J Haematol 2003;71(1):44-50.
Anderson JM, Etches D: Prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage. Am Fam Physician 2007;75:875-82.
Bodnar LM, Cogswell ME, McDonald T. Have we forgotten the signifi cance of postpartum iron defi ciency?. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:36-44.
Nicol B, Croughan-Minihane M, Kilpatrick SJ. Lack of value of routine postpartum hematocrit determination aft er vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1997;90:514-8.
Combs CA, Murphy EL, Laros RK. Factors associated with postpartum hemorrhage with vaginal birth. Obstet Gynecol 1991;77:69-76.
Klajnbard A, Szecsi PB, Colov NP, Anderson MR, Jorgensen M, Bjorngaard B et al. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010;48(2):237–248.
Usher R, Shephard M, Lind J. Th e blood volume of the newborn infant and placental transfusion. Acta Paediatr 1963;52:497-512.
Ozyürek E, Cetintaş S, Ceylan T, Oğüş E, Haberal A, Gürakan B et al. Complete blood count parameters for healthy, small-for-gestationalage, full-term newborns. Clin Lab Haematol 2006;28(2):97-104.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top