Introduction and objective:
Low back pain (LBP) is a major cause of disability and the main reason why individual patients need medical attention. Pharmacological treatment options for LBP are limited and are often associated with serious side-effects. This makes it necessary to search for new painkillers. One potential therapeutic agent is cannabidiol (CDB). Cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol are the most researched components of cannabis, the plant more commonly known as marijuana or hemp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first narrative review of the effects of CBD alone on acute and chronic back pain.

Review methods:
Based on the guidelines provided by the Primary Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement (PRISMA), the PubMed/ MEDLINE database was used to identify articles for analysis from the last 30 years. Due to the limited number of studies on this topic, all types of studies that met the inclusion criteria were included. After analysis, 10 studies were included in this review.

Brief description of the state of knowledge:
Currently, the use of medical marijuana continues to increase and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved four cannabis-based drugs. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a relatively safe substance for humans and generally well tolerated. It is a substance that is easily available and often taken by patients with LBP.

Evidence for the effectiveness of CBD in the treatment of acute low back pain is lacking. There was only one clinical trial conducted in the Emergency Department that showed no superiority of CBD over placebo in acute LBP. The majority of studies concern chronic rather than acute LBP. Although most of the results suggest a beneficial effect of cannabinoids in relieving chronic LBP, hard evidence is lacking. Rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed.

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