Biomonitoring the indoor environment of agricultural buildings
More details
Hide details
Department of Construction Technology and Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University, Kosice, Slovak Republic
Department of the Environment, Veterinary Legislation and Economy, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Kosice, Slovak Republic
Corresponding author
Jozef Švajlenka   

Department of Construction Technology and Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Slovak Republic, Vysokoskolska 4, 04200 Košice, Slovak Republic
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018;25(2):292-295
Introduction. Agricultural hygiene and biomonitoring helps protect people, livestock and crops from pests and disease, including insects, parasites, pathogens and weeds. Optimising the health of animals and crops increases productivity, minimises animal suffering, and ultimately protects human health by ensuring that foodstuffs are safe for consumption. A healthy farm environment also protects the health of the agricultural workers. Ensuring hygiene and health protection is one of the basic construction requirements. Such requirements are examined when commissioning new constructions and examining defects in constructions already in use. One substantial defect is biocorrosion which represents a synergistic process with a complex variety of factors, caused by biochemical manifestations of various micro-organisms micromycetes). Micromycetes producing mycotoxins therefore play an important role regarding the so-called ‘Sick Building Syndrome’ (SBS) that has become a global problem nowadays. Therefore, agricultural hygiene and biomonitoring aims to minimise the introduction of additional pathogens and pests, as well as the spread of pathogens and pests in farm environments; this helps protect the safety of foodstuffs further down the supply chain. Objective. The aim of the presented study is to point out the need to address indoor environment monitoring, summarizing the most commonly used methods for monitoring biological factors, and characterizing the negative effects of biological agents on humans and animals exposed to their negative effects.
Kuplík V, Wasserbauer R. Construction of buildings eighty healthiness building structure. Praha: ČVUT, 1999. p.150.
Decree SR. Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic laying down details on general technical requirements for the construction and general technical requirements for construction. 2002; 532.
Makýš O. Reconstruction of buildings Technology. Bratislava: Jaga group 2000. p.167.
Vlček M. Humid walls. Česká stavebná spoločnosť. Praha: WTA, 2000.p.284.
Balík M. Dehumidification of buildings. Praha: Grada publishing 2008.p.10.
Minarovičová K, Antošová N. Sustainability of ETICS maintenance technologies. Applied Mechanics and Materials: Advanced Architectural Design and Construction 2016; 820: 194–199.
Lupisek A, Nehasilova M, Mancik S, Zelezna J, Ruzicka J, Fiala C, Tywoniak J, Hajek P. Desighn strategies of building with low embodied energy. P I Civil Eng-Eng Su. 2017; 170(2): 65–80.
Tambouratzis T, Karalekas D, Moustakas N. A Methodological Study for Optimizing Material Selection in Sustainable Product Design. J Ind Ecol. 2014; 18(4): 508–516.
Jiránek M, Kupilík V, Wasserbauer R. Health safety of buildings. Praha: ŠEL. 1999. p. 239.
Matoušek M, Drochytka R. Atmospheric corrosion of concrete. Praha: IKAS. 1998. p. 171.
Šályová D, Ledererová M, Struhárová A. Properties and methods for testing the properties of building materials. Bratislava: STU. 2005. p.38–41.
Antošová N, Minarovičová K. The methodology for the selection of technologies for the removal of microorganisms from ETICS. Applied Mechanics and Materials: Advanced Architectural Design and Construction. 2016; 820: 200–205.
Zgutova K, Decky M, Sramek J, Dreveny I. Using of Alternative Methods at Earthworks Quality Control. World multidisciplinary earth sciences symposium, WMESS 2015, 2015; 15: 263–270.
Sebok T, Vondruska M, Kulisek K. Influence of MSFC-type dispersant composition on the performance of soluble anhydrite binders. Cement Concrete Res. 2001; 31(11): 1593–1599.
Olsova J, Gašparik J, Stefunkova Z, Briatka, P. Interaction of the asphalt layers reinforced by glass-fiber mesh. ESaT 2016; 2016: 803–808.
Katunsky D, Katunska J, Toth S. Possibility of choices industrial hall object reconstruction. 15th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference SGEM, 2015: 389–396.
Yanagisawa Y, Yoshino H, Ishikawa S, Miyata M. Chemical Sensitivity and Sick Building Syndrome. New York: CRC press, 2017. p.88.
Lu C, Deng Q, Li Y, Sundell J, Norbäck D. Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome among adults in China. Sci Total Environ. 2016; 186(96): 560–561.
Redlich CA, Sparer J, Cullen MR. Sick-building syndrome. 1997; 349 (5): 1013–1016.
Jones AP. Indoor air quality and health. Atmos Environ. 1999; 33: 4535–4564.
Burge HA. Bioaerosol investigations. Florida: CRC Press, 1995. p.258.
Wahab SNA, Mohammed NI, Khamidi MF, Jamaluddin N. Qualitative Assessment of Mould Growth for Higher Education Library Building in Malaysia. Soc Behav Sci. 2015; 170: 252–261.
Paříková J, Kučerová I. How to dispose of mold. Praha: Grada publishing, 2001. p. 91.
Votava M. Special medical microbiology. Brno: Neptun, 2003.p.354.
Lignell U. Characterization of Microorganisms in Indoor Environments. Publications of the National Public Health Institute Kuopio: KTL, 2008. p.104.
Amann RI, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev.1995; 59(1): 143–169.
Lee JH, Jo WK. Characteristics of indoor and outdoor bioaerosols at Korean highrise apartment buildings. Environ Res. 2006; 101: 11–17.
Jokl MV. Evaluation of indoor air quality using the decibel concept. Int J Environ Health Res. 1997; 7: 289–306.
Mac Neil L, Kauri T, Robertson W. Molecular techniques and their potential application in monitoring the microbiological quality of indoor air. Can J Microbiol. 1995; 41: 657–665.
Portnoy JM, Barnes CS, Kennedy K. Sampling for indoor fungi. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 113: 189–198.
Samson R, Flannigan B, Flannigan M, Verhoeff A, Adan O, Hoekstra E. Health implications of fungi in indoor environments. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci. 1994. p.281–290.
Dorge T, Carstensen JM, Frisvad JC. Direct identification of pure Penicillium species using image analysis. J Microbiol Methods. 2000; 41: 121–133.
Hirvonen MR, Ruotsalainena M, Savolainenb K, Nevalainena A. Effect of viability of actinomycete spores on their ability to stimulate production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Toxicology. 1997; 124: 105–114.
Levetin E. Fungi Bioaerosols. Florida: CRC Press, 1995. p. 87–120.
Kepner RL, Pratt JR. Use of fluorochromes for direct enumeration of total bacteria in environmental samples: past and present. Microbiol Rev. 1994; 58: 603–615.
Pasanen AL. Fungal exposure assessment in indoor environments. Indoor Air. 2001; 11: 87–98.
Day JP, Kell DB, Griffith GW. Differentiation of Phytophthora infestans sporangia from other airborne biological particles by flow cytometry. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002; 68: 37–45.
Lange JL, Thorne PS, Lynch N. Application of flow cytometry and fluorescent in situ hybridization for assessment of exposures to airborne bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1997; 63: 1557–1563.
Eduard W. Measurement methods and strategies for non-infectious microbial components in bioaerosols at the workplace. Analyst. 1996; 121: 1197–1201.
Degola F, Berni E, Dall AC, Spotti E, Marchelli R, Ferrero I, Restivo FM. A multiplex RT-PCR approach to detect aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007; 103: 409–417.
Isik N, White L, Barnes R, Poynton CJ, Mills KI. A simple PCR/RFLP analysis can differentiate between Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mol Biotechnol. 2003; 24: 229–231.
Vesper S, Dearborn DG, Yike I, Allan T, Sobolewski J, Hinkley SF, Jarvis BB, Haugland RA. Evaluation of Stachybotrys chartarum in the house of an infant with pulmonary haemorrhage quantitative assessment before during and after remediation. J Urban Health. 2000; 77: 68–85.
Peccia J, Hernandez M. Incorporating polymerase chain reaction-based identification, population characterization, and quantification of microorganisms into aerosol science. Atmos Res. 2006; 40(21): 3941–3961.
Stewart SL, Grinshpun SA, Willeke K, Terzieva S, Ulevicius V, Donnelly J. Effect of impact stress on microbial recovery on an agar surface. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995; 61(4): 1232–1239.
An HR, Mainelis G, Yao M. Evaluation of a high-volume portable bioaerosol sampler in laboratory and field environments. Indoor Air. 2004; 14(6): 385–393.
Rautiala S, Reponen T, Hyvarinen A, Nevalainen A, Husman T, Vehvilainen A, Kalliokoski P. Exposure to airborne microbes during the repair of moldy buildings. AIHA J. 1996; 57: 279–284.
Toivola M, Nevalainen A, Alm S. Viable fungi and bacteria in personal exposure samples in relation to microenvironments. J Environ Monit. 2004; 6: 113–120.
Napoli Ch, Marcotrigiano V, Montagna MT. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 594.
Petti S, Lannazzo S, Tarsitani G. Comparison between different methods to monitor the microbial level of indoor air contamination in the dental office. Ann Ig . 2003; 15: 725–733.
Salustianov VC, Andrade NJ, Brandao SCC, Azeredo RMC, Lima SAK. Microbiological air quality of processing areas in a dairy plant as evaluated by the sedimentation techniques and one-stage air sampler. Braz J Microbiol. 2003; 34: 255–259.
Lindsley WG, Schmechel D, Chen BT. A two-stage cyclone using microcentrifuge tubes for personal bioaerosol sampling. J Environ Monit. 2006; 8(11): 1136–1142.
Baxter DM, Perkins JL, McGhee ChR, Seltzer JM. A Regional Comparison of Mold Spore Concentrations Outdoors and Inside Clean and Mold Contaminated Southern California Buildings. JOEH. 2005; 2: 8–18.
Foto M, Vrijmoed LLP, Miller JD, Ruest K, Lawton M, Dales RE. A comparison of airborne ergosterol, glucan and Air-o-cell data in relation to physical assessments of mold damage and some other parameters. Indoor Air. 2005; 15(4): 257–266.
ZWS Environmental Services, Inc. 2017; 12: 1–2.
Pasquarella C, Albertini R, Dall AP, Saccani E, Sansebastiano GE, Signorelli C. Air microbial samples the state of the art. Sanita Pubbl. 2008; 64: 79–120.
Reponen T, Willeke K, Grinshpun S, Nevalainen A. Biological particle sampling. New York: Wiley & Sons, 2001. p.179–184.
ISO 14698–1. Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments-Biocontamination control. Part 1: General principles and methods. Milano: UNI. 2003.
Ostrý V. Mikromycety, mykotoxiny a zdraví človeka, Časopis lékařú českých, 1999; 138(17): 515–521.
Zain ME. Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals, J Saudi Chem. Soc. 2011; 15: 129–144.
Vlčkova R, Valocky I, Lazar G, Sopková D, Maraček I. Histological and ultrasonographic monitoring of folliculogenesis in puerperal ewes after spring lambing. Acta Vet Brno. 2008; 77(1): 65–72.
Sopkova D, Andrejcakova Z, Vlckova R, Danisova O, Supuka P, Ondrasovicova S, Petrilla V. Lactate dehydrogenase as a possible indicator of reproductive capacity of boars. Indian J Anim Sci. 2015; 85(2): 143–147.
Angelovičová L, Lodenius M, Tulisalo E, Fazekašová D. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in middle spis mining area Slovakia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.2014; 93(6): 670–676.
Demková L, Bobuľská L, Árvay J, Jezný T, Ducsay L. Biomonitoring of heavy metals contamination by mosses and liches around Slovinky tailing pond Slovakia. J Environ Sci Health. Part A. 2017; 52(1): 30–36.
Dinis AMP, Lino CM, Pena AS. Ochratoxin A in nephropathic patients from two cities of central zone in Portugal. J Pharmaceut Biomed Anal. 2007; 44: 553–557.
CAST, Mycotoxins risks in Plant, Animal and Human Systems. Iowa: Ames, 2003.p.139.
Jarvis BB. Chemistry and toxicology of molds isolated from water damaged buildings. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 504: 43–52.
Milicevic D, Skrinjar M, Baltic T. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds challenges for food safety control. Toxins. 2010; 2: 572–592.
Bennett JW, Klich M. Mycotoxins. Clin Microbiol. 2003; 16: 497–516.
Hussein HS, Brasel JM. Toxicity, metabolism and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicol. 2001; 167: 101–134.
Boudra H, Barnouin J, Dragacci S, Morgavi DP. Aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw bulk milk from French dairy herds. J Dairy Sci. 2007; 90: 3197–3201.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top