The role of Chromium III in the organism and its possible use in diabetes and obesity treatment

Sławomir Lewicki 1  ,  
Aneta Lewicka 2,  
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Hygiene and Physiology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
Division of Biochemistry, Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Warsaw, Poland
Biological Threats Identification and Countermeasure Centre of the Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Puławy, Poland
Emergency Medicine Unit, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2014;21(2):331–335
Diabetes and obesity are diseases characterized by their increasing incidence every year. When comparing with healthy subjects, the serum levels of chromium (Cr) are lowered in these two diseases. Several studies conducted in laboratory animals with experimentally- induced diabetes demonstrated that supplementation with chromium ions (III) decreased glucose concentration in the blood, reduced the probability of atherosclerosis and heart attack, lowered the levels of cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL). The Importance of chromium is actually challenged due to lack of clear manifestations of Cr deficiency in humans and animals.

The aim of this review was to present current knowledge about Cr its role in the organism and possible mechanisms of its action also in metabolic disorders such as diabetes or obesity.

State of knowledge:
In the last decade, Cr was established to be rather a beneficial than essential trace element in mammals, and has gained popularity as a nutritional supplement and a component of many multivitamin/mineral formulations, fortified food and energy drinks. Cr supplements are widespread for diabetes and obesity treatment, despite conflicting reports on its efficacy. It was suggested that Cr shows a beneficial influence upon glucose and lipid disturbances.

The recent clinical trials provided evidence both in favor and against the importance of Cr in healthy and ill organisms. Unfortunately, also the molecular mechanism by which chromium affects glucose and lipid metabolism is still unclear. Beneficial effects of diet supplementation with different sources of Cr 3+ can be potentially explained by rather pharmacological than nutritional effects.

Sławomir Lewicki   
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
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