In recent years, the number of diseases caused by fungal pathogens has increased significantly. Many species of fungi are pathogenic for plants, causing a threat to food production and to humans, and are among the causes of chronic diseases.

The aim of the study is to determine the enzyme profiles of fungi, depending on the different types of fruit with which they have contact, and to determine the differences in these profiles in relation to the substrate on which they are grown.

Material and methods:
Six strains of fungi identified as Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Fusarium poae, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium verucosum and Acremonium strictum, isolated from fruits, were selected and analyzed for enzymatic profiles. The enzymatic activity was assessed using the API ZYM test (bioMerieux, France).

In the majority of the 6 fungal strains isolated from fruits, enzymes belonging to glycol-hydrolases were the most active. The exception was Acremonium strictum, where phosphatases dominated. Among most fungal isolates, the enzymes β- glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase showed the highest activity. The highest β-glucosidase activities were found in Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Penicillium expansum. On the other hand, lipase, α-fucosidase and α-chymotrypsin showed the least activity. The least activity of these enzymes or their complete absence was observed in Fusarium poae, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium expansum and Acremonium strictum.

The activity of hydrolytic enzymes in the isolated fungi depended on the addition of fruit and the type of medium. Individual fruits can increase or decrease the activity of the enzymes. Fungi present in fruit have pathogenic properties and can be possible risk factors for fungal infections.

Farian E, Cholewa G, Cholewa A, Matczuk M, Wójcik-Fatla A. The effect of fruit on the extracellular enzyme profiles of fungi. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2020; 27(4): 562–567. doi: 10.26444/aaem/127557
De Lucca AJ. Harmful fungi in both agriculture and medicine. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2007; 24: 3–13.
Almeida F, Rodrigues ML, Coelho C. The still underestimated problem of fungal diseases worldwide. Front Microbiol. 2019; 10: 214.
Khare E, Yadav A. The role of microbial enzyme systems in plant growth promotion. Clim Chang Environ Sustain. 2017; 5(2): 122–145.
Kłapeć T, Cholewa G, Cholewa A, et al. Fungal diversity of root vegetables and soil rhizosphere collected from organic and conventional farms in Eastern Poland. Ann Agr Env Med. 2018; 25(2): 374–381.
Köhler JR, Casadevall A, Perfect J. The spectrum of fungi that infects humans. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015; 5(1): a019273.
Mezzetti B, Giampieri F, Zhang Y, et al. Status of strawberry breeding programs and cultivation systems in Europe and the rest of the world. J Berry Res. 2018; 8: 205–221.
Prusky DB, Wilson RA. Does increased nutritional carbon availability in fruit and foliar hosts contribute to modulation of pathogen colonization? Postharvest Biol Technol. 2018; 145: 27–32.
Molnárová J, Vadkertiová R, Stratilová E. Extracellular enzymatic activities and physiological profile of yeasts colonizing fruit trees. J Basic Microb. 2014; 54(1): S74–84.
Karkowska-Kuleta J, Rapala-Kozik M, Kozik A. Fungi pathogenic to humans: molecular bases of virulence of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Acta Biochim Pol. 2009; 56(2): 211–224.
Mustafa U, Kaur G. Extracellular enzyme production in Metarhizium anisopliae isolates. Folia Microbiol. 2009; 54(6): 499–504.
de Vries RP, Visser J. Aspergillus enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001; 65(4): 497–522.
Lamichhane JR, Venturi V. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend. Front Plant Sci. 2015; 6: 385.
Ebanks JP, Koshoffer A, Wickett RR, et al. Hydrolytic enzymes of the interfollicular epidermis differ in expression and correlate with the phenotypic difference observed between light and dark skin. J Dermatol. 2013; 40(1): 27–33.
Schaller M, Borelli C, Korting HC, et al. Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans. Mycoses. 2005; 48(6): 365–377.
Bang WS, Chung HJ. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the enzyme activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. N Biotech. 2010; 27: 440–444.
Paterson RRM, Lima N. Filamentous fungal human pathogens from food emphasising Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor. Microorganisms. 2017; 5(3): 44.
Baxi SN, Portnoy JM, Larenas-Linnemann D, et al. Exposure and health effects of fungi on humans. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016; 4(3): 396–404.
Gong D, Bi Z, Li Z, et al. Both Penicillium expansum and Trichothecium roseum infections promote the ripening of apples and release specific volatile compounds. Front Plant Sci. 2019; 10: 338.
Qin G, Tian S, Chan Z, et al. Crucial role of antioxidant proteins and hydrolytic enzymes in pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007; 6(3): 425–438.
Spotts RA, Holmes RJ, Washington WS. Sources of spores and inoculum concentrations related to postharvest decay of apple and pear. Austr Plant Path. 1988; 17(2): 48–52.
Moss MO. Fungi, quality and safety issues in fresh fruits and vegetables. J Appl Microbiol. 2008; 104(5): 1239–1243.
Marín S, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ, et al. Effect of water activity on hydro -lytic enzyme production by Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum during colonisation of maize. Int J Food Microbiol. 1998; 42(3): 185–194.
Żukiewicz-Sobczak WA, Cholewa G, Sobczak P, et al. Enzymatic activity of fungi isolated from crops. Post Dermatol Alergol. 2016; 33(6): 457–463.
van Diepeningen AD, Brankovics B, Iltes J, et al. Diagnosis of Fusarium infections: approaches to identification by the clinical mycology laboratory. Diagn Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2015; 9: 135–143.
Somma S, Amatulli MT, Masiello M, et al. Alternaria species associated to wheat black point identified through a multilocus sequence approach. Int J Food Microbiol. 2019; 293: 34–43.
Leino MS, Loxham M, Blume C, et al. Barrier disrupting effects of Alter­naria alternata extract on bronchial epithelium from asthmatic donors. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8): e71278.
Yew SM, Chan ChL, Ngeow YF, et al. Insight into different environmental niches adaptation and allergenicity from the Cladosporium sphaero­spermum genome, a common human allergy-eliciting Dothideomycetes. Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 27008.
Racedo J, Salazar SM, Castagnaro AP, et al. A strawberry disease caused by Acremonium strictum. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2013; 137: 649–654.
Hilmioglu MDJ, Tasbakan M, Pullukcu H, et al. Skin infection on both legs caused by Acremonium strictum (case report). Ann Saudi Med. 2015; 35(5): 406–408.
Manisha K, Pawar N. Morpho-pathological effects of isolated fungal species on human population. Sci Reports. 2012; 1(1): 521–526.