RESEARCH PAPER
Study on tick-borne rickettsiae in eastern Poland: II. Serological response of the occupationally exposed populations
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Zoonoses, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Parasitology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(2):280–282
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
A group of 150 persons living in the Lublin province of eastern Poland and occupationally exposed to tick bite were examined by the immunoenzymatic ELISA test for the presence of antibodies against tick-borne Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsiae. The group consisted of 75 forestry workers employed in 3 forest inspectorates and 75 agricultural workers living in 2 villages. As a control group, 43 urban dwellers living in the city of Lublin and not occupationally exposed to tick bite were examined. Among 150 persons occupationally exposed to tick bite, the presence of antibodies against SFG rickettsiae was found in 54 (36.0% of the total). In the control group, the frequency of positive findings was only 4.7%, being significantly smaller compared to the exposed group (p=0.0001). Within the exposed group, the percentage of positive results in forestry workers (50.7%) was greater than in agricultural workers (21.3%); the difference was statistically significant (p=0.0002). Also within this group, the frequency of positive findings in males (46.5%) was significantly greater than in females (21.9%) (p=0.0029). In the exposed group, the positive results tended to increase with the age of the examined persons. However, a significant relationship between age and positive findings was found only in forestry workers (χ2=14.207, p=0.00264), but not in agricultural workers and total exposed workers. The frequencies of positive results in forestry workers varied significantly depending on place of work (χ2 =11.271, p=0.00357). Similarly, the difference between the positive reactions in agricultural workers living in 2 villages proved to be significant (34.2% vs. 8.1%; p=0.0074). The obtained results indicate that people occupationally exposed to tick bite and living in the area of eastern Poland where over half of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks harbour SFG rickettsiae, are under significantly increased risk of infection with these rickettsiae.
 
REFERENCES (25)
1.
Boretti FS, Perreten A, Meli ML, Cattori V, Willi B, Wengi N, et al. Molecular investigations of Rickettsia helvetica infection in dogs, foxes, humans, and Ixodes ticks. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009; 75(10): 3230–3237.
 
2.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientific Opinion on Geographic Distribution of Tick-Borne Infections and their Vectors in Europe and other Regions of the Mediterranean Basin. EFSA Journal. 2010; 8(9): 1723.
 
3.
Blanco JR, Oteo JA. Rickettsiosis in Europe. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1078: 26–33.
 
4.
Brouqui P, Parola P, Fournier PE, Raoult D. Spotted fever rickettsioses in southern and eastern Europe. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007; 49(1): 2–12.
 
5.
Rieg S, Schmoldt S, Theilacker C, de With K, Wölfel S, Kern WV, et al. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) acquired in Southwestern Germany. BMC Infect Dis. 2011; 11: 167.
 
6.
Świtaj K, Chmielewski T, Borkowski P, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S, Olszyńska-Krowicka M. Spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia raoultii – case report. Przegl Epidemiol. 2012; 66(2): 347–350.
 
7.
Fournier PE, Grunnenberger F, Jaulhac B, Gastinger G, Raoult D. Evidence of Rickettsia helvetica infection in humans, eastern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000; 6(4): 389–392.
 
8.
Cinco M, Luzzati R, Mascioli M, Floris R, Brouqui P. Serological evidence of Rickettsia infections in forestry rangers in north-eastern Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006; 12(5): 493–495.
 
9.
Podsiadły E, Chmielewski T, Karbowiak G, Kędra E, TylewskaWierzbanowska. The occurrence of spotted fever rickettsioses and other tick-borne infections in forest workers in Poland. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011; 11(7): 985–989.
 
10.
Stańczak J. The occurrence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Poland. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1078: 512–514.
 
11.
Stańczak J. Detection of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Poland. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006; 296(Suppl. 40): 144–148.
 
12.
Chmielewski T, Podsiadly E, Karbowiak G, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S. Rickettsia spp. in ticks, Poland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009; 15(3):486–488.
 
13.
Wójcik-Fatla A, Cisak E, Zając V, Sroka J, Sawczyn A, Dutkiewicz J. Study on tick-borne rickettsiae in eastern Poland: I. Prevalence in Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Amblyommidae). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013; 20(2): (submitted).
 
14.
Tee TS, Kamalanathan M, Suan KA, Chun SS, Ming HT, Yasin RM, et al. Seroepidemiologic survey of Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi, and TT118 spotted fever group rickettsiae in rubber estate workers in Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999; 61(1): 73–77.
 
15.
Kovácová E, Sixl W, Stünzner D, Urvölgyi J, Kazár J. Serological examination of human and animal sera from six countries of three continents for the presence of rickettsial antibodies. Eur J Epidemiol. 1996; 12(1): 85–89.
 
16.
Punda-Polić V, Klismanić Z, Capkun V. Prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae in the region of Split (southern Croatia). Eur J Epidemiol. 2003; 18(5): 451–455.
 
17.
Sekeyova Z, Subramanian G, Mediannikov O, Diaz MQ, Nyitray A, Blaskovicova H, et al. Evaluation of clinical specimens for Rickettsia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Franciscella and Diplorickettsia positivity using serological and molecular biology methods. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012; 64(1): 82–91.
 
18.
Anstey NM, Tissot Dupont H, Hahn CG, Mwaikambo ED, McDonald MI, Raoult D, et al. Seroepidemiology of Rickettsia typhi, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Coxiella burnetii infection in pregnant women from urban Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997; 57(2): 187–189.
 
19.
Toledo RS, Tamekuni K, de Freitas Silva Filho M, Haydu VB, Pacheco RC, Labruna MB, et al. (2011) Study of infection by Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in humans and ticks in an urban park located in the City of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011; 44(3):313–317.
 
20.
Richards AL, Ratiwayanto S, Rahardjo E, Kelly DJ, Dasch GA, Fryauff DJ, et al. Serologic evidence of infection with ehrlichiae and spotted fever group rickettsiae among residents of Gag Island, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003; 68(4): 480–484.
 
21.
Blair PJ, Schoeler GB, Moron C, Anaya E, Caceda R, Cespedes M, et al. Evidence of rickettsial and leptospira infections in Andean northern Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 70(4): 357–363.
 
22.
Lledó L, Gegúndez MI, Fernandes N, Sousa R, Vicente J, Alamo R, et al. The seroprevalence of human infection with Rickettsia slovaca, in an area of northern Spain. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006; 100(4): 337–343.
 
23.
Tay ST, Kamalanathan M, Rohani MY. Antibody prevalence of Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi and TT118 spotted fever group rickettsiae among Malaysian blood donors and febrile patients in the urban areas. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003; 34(1): 165–170.
 
24.
Sonnleitner ST, Simeoni J, Lang S, Dobler G, Speck S, Zelger R, et al. (2012) Spotted Fever Group – Rickettsiae in the Tyrols: Evidence by seroepidemiology and PCR. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1863–2378.2012.01534.x.
 
25.
Camer GA, Alejandria M, Amor M, Satoh H, Muramatsu Y, Ueno H, et al. Detection of antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), typhus group Rickettsia (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii in human febrile patients in the Philippines. Jpn JInfect Dis. 2003; 56(1): 26-28.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966