Predictors of the quality of life of women in peri-menopausal period

Katarzyna Kanadys 1  ,  
Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Obstetrics-Gynaecological Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
Department of Prosthodontics, I Medical Faculty with Dentistry Division, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stefan Kardynał Wyszyński District Specialist Hospital, Lublin, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2016;23(4):641–648
The peri-menopausal period is the time of many biological, psychological and social changes. The quality of life of women in this period may be conditioned by many factors, and analysis of these factors may indicate the optimum directions of prophylactic and educational actions.

Analysis of selected predictive factors of the quality of life of women in the peri-menopausal period.

Material and Methods:
The study covered 268 peri-menopausal women. The qualification criteria were: age 45–55, lack of mental disorders and diseases requiring hospitalization during the period of study. The study was conducted using standardized instruments: Women’s Health Questionnaire – WHQ, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and an author-constructed questionnaire.

The presented study of the quality of life showed that the women examined felt physically unattractive, lacking the full joy of life, and frequently experienced somatic complaints. Nevertheless, the respondents enjoyed life, had no constant feeling of anxiety and concern. Multi-factor analysis showed that the quality of life in the group of women in the study was affected by the following factors: level of depression, self-reported state of health, occurrence of menopausal symptoms, education level, and marital status.

The quality of life of the peri-menopausal women examined was the highest with respect to depressive mood (DEP) and anxiety/depressed mood (ANX), while it was the lowest with respect to the sense of attractiveness (ATT), and somatic symptoms (SOM). In addition, in the group of women in peri-menopausal period the quality of life was conditioned: level of depression, self-reported state of health, occurrence of menopausal symptoms, education level, and marital status.

Katarzyna Kanadys   
Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Obstetrics-Gynaecological Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
1. Bielawska-Batorowicz E. Występowanie objawów uznawanych za typowe dla menopauzy u kobiet i mężczyzn w wieku 45–55 lat. (Occurrence of symptoms considered as typical of menopause among males and females aged 45–55) Prz Menopauzalny 2005; 1: 53–60 (in Polish).
2. Elsabagh EEM, Allah ESA. Menopausal symptoms and the quality of life among pre/post menopausal women from rural area in Zagazig city. Life Sci J. 2012; 9 (2): 283–291.
3. Humeniuk E, Bojar I, Owoc A, Wojtyła A, Fronczak A. Psychosocial conditioning of depressive disorders in post-menopausal women. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 441–445.
4. The Whoqol Group. The world health organization quality of life assessment (Whoqol). Position paper from the world organization. Position paper from the world health organization. Soc Sci Med. 1995; 41(10): 1403–1409.
5. Daszkowska J. Jakość życia w koncepcjach związanych ze zdrowiem. (Quality of life in health-related concepts). Prz Med Uniw Rzesz. 2006; 2: 122–128 (in Polish).
6. Kanadys K, Lewicka M, Wiktor K, Bąk M, Wiktor H. The quality of life women in perimenopausal period – the explanation of the notions measurement metods. In: Fidecki W, Wysokiński M, (ed.). Select problems of the ageing population. Szk Wyższ, Radom 2009: 231–238.
7. Zagozdzon P, Kolarzyk E, Marcinkowski JT. Quality of life and rural place of residence in Polish women – population based study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2); 429–432.
8. Giannoulia P, Zervasb I, Armenia E, et al. Determinants of quality of life in Greek middle-age women: A population survey. Maturitas 2012; 71: 154 – 161.
9. Girod I, Abetz L, de la Loge C. Women’s Health Questionnaire – User Manual. MAPI Research Institute 2004: 3–56.
10. Shin H, Shin HS. Measurement of quality of life in menopausal women: a systematic review. West. J Nursing Res. 2012; 34 (4): 475–503.
11. Drews K, Seremak-Mrozikiewicz A, Pieńkowski W. Ginekologia geriatryczna. (Geriatric gynaecology) In: Słomko Z, (ed.). Ginekologia. Warszawa: PZWL; 2008: 431–449.
12. Bińkowska M. Badanie postaw i zachowań zdrowotnych oraz jakości życia reprezentatywnej grupy kobiet polskich w wieku od 45 do 54 lat. (Studies of attitudes and health behaviours and the quality of life of a group of Polish women aged 45–54) Prz Menopauzalny 2005, supl.; 1: 4–64 (in Polish).
13. Beck AT, Steer RA. Beck Inventory Mannual. The Psychological Corporation 1993, Harcourt Brace & Co,.
14. Pacian A, Kulik TB, Pacian J, Chruściel P, Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek D, Jarosz M. Psychosocial aspect of quality of life of Polish women with Brest cancer. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(3): 509–512.
15. Karaçam Z, Şeker SE. Factors associated with menopausal symptoms and their relationship with the quality of life among Turkish women. Maturitas 2007; 58: 75–82.
16. Koundi KL, Christodoulakos GE, Lambrinoudaki IV, Zervas IM, Spyropoulou A, Fexi P. Quality of life and psychological symptoms in Greek postmenopausal women: Association with hormone therapy. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006; 22(12): 660–668.
17. Avis NE, Assmann SF, Kravitz HM, Ganz PA, Ory M. Quality of life in diverse groups of midlife women: Assessing the influence of menopause, health status and psychosocial and demographic factors. Qual Life Res. 2004; 13: 933–946.
18. Li C, Borgfeldt C, Samsioe G, Lidfeldt J, Nerbrand C. Background factors influencing somatic and psychological symptoms in middle-age women with different hormonal status: a population-based study of Swedish women. Maturitas 2005; 52: 306–318.
19. Lai JN, Chen HJ, Chen CM, Chen PC, Wang JD. Quality of life and climacteric complaints amongst women seeking medical advice in Taiwan: assessment using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Climacteric 2006; 9: 119–128.
20. Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek D, Kulik TB, Pacian A. Predictors of quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal Polish women living in Lublin Voivodeship. Climacteric 2011; 14; (6): 669–676.
21. Chmaj-Wierzchowska K, Pięta B, Kotecka M, Michalak M, Sajdak S, Opala T. Three most important etiological factors of occurrence of stress urinary incontinence in nulliparous pre-and postmenopausal Polish women. Ann Agric Environ Med 2012; 19(3): 581–585.
22. Chen Y, Lin S-Q, Wei Y, Gao HL, Wu ZL. Menopause-specific quality of life satisfaction in community-dwelling menopausal women in China. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007; 23 (3): 166–172.
23. Utian WH. Psychosocial and socioeconomic burden of vasomotor symptoms in menopause: A comprehensive review. Health Qual. Life Outcomes. 2005; 3: 47.
24. Genazzani AR, Gambacciani M, Simoncini T. Menopause and aging, quality of life and sexuality. International Menopause Society Expert Workshop. Climacteric 2007; 10: 88–96.
25. Ayers B, Hunter MS. Health-related quality of life of women with menopausal hot flushes and night sweats . Climacteric 2013; 16: 235–239.
26. Özkan S, Alatas SE, Zencir M. Women,s quality of life in the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. Qual Life Res. 2005; 14: 1795–1801.
27. Conde DM, Pinto-Neto AM, Santos-Sá D, Costa-Paiva L, Martinez EZ. Factors associated with quality of life in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006; 22(8): 441–446.
28. Waidyasekera H, Wijewardena K, Lindmark G, Naeseen T. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life during the menopausal transition in Sri Lankan women. Menopause 2009; 16(1): 164–170.
29. Genazzani AR, Schneider HPG, Nijland E. The European Menopause Survey 2005: What do women think right now about menopause and HRT? Climacteric 2005; 8 suppl. 2: 96.
30. Satoh T, Ohashi K. Quality-of-life assessment in community-dwelling, middle-aged, healthy women in Japan. Climacteric 2005; 8: 145–153.
31. Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM. Mood and menopause: findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) over 10 years. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011; 38(3): 609–625.
32. Soares CN. Can depression be a menopause-associated risk? BMC Med. 2010; 1; 8:79.
33. Gibbs Z, Lee S, Kulkarni J. What factors determine whether a woman becomes depressed during the perimenopause? Arch Women’s Ment Health. 2012; 15(5): 323–332.