0.829
IF
20
MNiSW
166.26
ICV
REVIEW PAPER
 
 

Pain management in children

Artur Mazur 1  ,  
 
1
Medical Faculty University of Rzeszów, Poland
2
Medical University of Silesia, School of Health Sciences, Katowice, Poland
3
Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2013;20(Special Issue 1):28–34
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
The paediatric population is at risk of inadequate pain management, with age-related factors affecting pain management in children. This presented study discusses the complexities of measuring paediatric pain, reviews the most well-known pain assessment scales, and emphasizes the importance of family nvolvement in situations where children are asked to self-report their experiences. Current ecommendations for treatment of pain in children are critically reviewed.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Artur Mazur   
Medical Faculty University of Rzeszów, Poland
 
REFERENCES (55):
1. http://www.iasp-pain.org/Education/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=1698&navItemNumber=576#Pain.
2. Pawar D, Garten L. Pain management in children. In: Kopf A, Patel N (eds.) Guide to Pain Management in Low-Resource Settings. International Association for the study of Pain, Seattle WA 2008.
3. Zeltzer LK, Krane EJ Pediatric Pain Management in Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE (eds): Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 19th edn., Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, USA, 2011, pp. 36–375.
4. Cohen L, Lemanek K, Blount R et al. Evidence-based assessment of paediatric pain. Journal of Paediatric Psychology 2008; 33(9): 939–955.
5. Currie C et al. (eds). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 6, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen 2012.
6. Perquin C, Hazebroek-Kampschreur A, Hunfeld J, Bohnen A, Suijlekom-Smit L, Passchier J, Wouden J. Pain in children and adolescents: a common experience, Pain 2000; 87 (1): 51–58.
7. Apley J, Naish N. Recurrent abdominal pains: a field survey of 1000 school children, Arch Dis Child. 1958; 33: 165–170.
8. Hotopf M, Carr S, Mayou R, Wadsworth M, Wessely S. Why do children have chronic abdominal pain, and what happens to them when they grow up? Population based cohort study, BMJ 1998; 316: 1196–1200.
9. Roth-Isigkeit, A, Thyen, U, Raspe, HH, Stöven, H, Schmucker, P: Reports of pain among German children and adolescents: an epidemiological study, ActaPædiatrica 1993; (2): 258–263.
10. Inocencio J. Musculoskeletal Pain in Primary Pediatric Care: Analysis of 1000 Consecutive General Pediatric Clinic Visits. Pediatrics 1998; 102: 63.
11. Lewis D. Headaches in Children and Adolescents. Am Fam Physician. 2002; 65(4): 625–633.
12. Egger H, Costello J, Erkanli A, Angold A. Somatic Complaints and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: Stomach Aches, Musculoskeletal Pains, and Headaches. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1999; 38: 852–860.
13. Hyams J, Burke G, Davis P, Rzepski B, Andrulonis P. Abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents: A community based study. J Pediatr. 1996; 129: 220–226.
14. Chiaretti A, Pierri F, Valentini P, Russo I, Gargiullo L, Riccardi R: Current practice and recent advances in pediatric pain management. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17 Suppl 1: 112–26.
15. Drendel AL, Kelly BT, Ali S: Pain assessment for children: overcoming challenges and optimizing care. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011; 27: 773–81.
16. Isigkeit A, Thyen U, Stöven H, Schwarzenberger J, Schmucker P. Pain Among Children and Adolescents: Restrictions in Daily Living and Triggering Factors. Pediatrics 2005; 115: 152–162.
17. Derbyshire SW, Foetal pain? Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010; 24(5): 647–655.
18. Marc Van de Velde&Frederik De Buck, Fetal and Maternal Analgesia/Anesthesia for Fetal Procedures. Fetal DiagnTher 2012; 31: 201–209.
19. Gupta R, Kilby M, Cooper G. Fetal surgery and anaesthetic implications. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain 2008; 8: 71–75.
20. Boris P, Cox PBW, Gogarten W, Strumper D, Marcus MAE. Fetal surgery, anaesthesiological considerations. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 2004; 17: 235–240.
21. Marcus M, Gogarten W, Louwen F. Remifentanil for fetal intrauterine microendoscopic procedures. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1999; 88: 257.
22. Anand KJS. Pain, plasticity, and premature birth: a prescription for permanent suffering? Nature Medicine 2000; 6: 971–973.
23. Royal College Of Nursing Improving Practice, Improving Care: The Recognition and Assessment of Acute Pain in Children. Update of Full Guideline, RCN, London 2009.
24. Simons J, Franck L, Roberson E Parent involvement in children’s pain care: views of parents and nurse. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2002: 36; 591–599.
25. Tayman C, Rayyan M, Allegaert K. Neonatal Pharmacology: Extensive Interindividual Variability Despite Limited Size J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2011; 16: 170–184.
26. Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, American Academy of Pediatrics; Task Force on Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, American Pain Society. The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 793–797.
27. Grunau RV, Johnston CC, Craig KD. Neonatal facial and cry responses to invasive and non-invasive procedures. Pain 1990; 42: 295–305.
28. Stevens B, Johnston C, Petryshen P, Taddio A. Premature Infant Pain Profile: development and initial validation. Clin J Pain. 1996; 12: 13–22.
29. Lawrence J, Alcock D, McGrath P, Kay J, MacMurray SB, Dulberg C. The development of a tool to assess neonatal pain. Neonatal Netw. 1993; 12: 59–66.
30. Merkle SI, Shayevitz JR, Voepel-Lewis T, Malviya S. The FLACC: A behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children. PediatrNurs. 1997; 23: 293–297.
31. von Baeyer CL. Children’s self-report of pain intensity: what we know, where we are headed. Pain Res Manag. 2009; 14: 39–45.
32. Beyer JE, Denyes MJ, Villarruel AM. The creation, validation, and continuing development of the Oucher: a measure of pain intensity in children. J PediatrNurs. 1992; 7: 335–346.
33. Hester NO, Foster R, Kristensen K. Measurement of pain in children: generalizability and validity of the Pain Ladder and the Poker Chip Tool. In: Tyler DC, Krane EJ, eds. Pediatric Pain. Vol 15. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy. New York: Raven Press Ltd.; 1990: 70–84.
34. Hicks CL, von Baeyer CL, Spafford P, van Korlaar I, Goodenough B. The Faces Pain Scale – revised: Toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Pain 2001; 93: 173–183.
35. Cohen LL, Lemanel K, Blount RL et al. Evidence-based assessment of pediatric pain. J Ped Psychol. 2008; 33(9): 939–955.
36. Drendel AL, Kelly BT, Ali S. Overcoming challenges and optimizing care. PediatrEmer Care. 2011; 27: 773–781.
37. McGrath P, Gillespie J. Pain Assessment in Children and Adolescents. In: Turk DC, Melzack R, eds. Handbook of Pain Assessment. New York: Guilford Press; 2001: 97–117.
38. Varni JW, Thompson KL, Hanson V. The Varni-Thompson pediatric pain questionnaire I. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pain 1987; 28: 29–38.
39. Children’s comprehensive pain questionnaire [CCPQ]. Ross DM; Ross SA. In: McGrath PA. Pain in children: Nature, assessment, and treatment. Guilford Press, New York 1990.pp.392–400.
40. Walco GA, Halpern SL, Conte PM. Pain in Infants and Children. In: Tollison CD, Satterthwaithe JR, Tollison JW (eds.). Practical Pain Management. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2002.p.748–759.
41. Hennequin M, Morin C, Feine JS Pain expression and stimulus localisation in individuals with Down’s syndrome Lancet 2000; 356: 1882–1887.
42. Bandstra NF, Johnson SA, Filliter JH, Chambers CT. Self-reported and parent-reported pain for common painful events in high-functioning children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Clin J Pain. 2012; 28: 715–721.
43. WHO Guidelines on the Pharmacological Treatment of Persisting Pain in Children with Medical Illnesses. World Health Organization, Geneva 2012.
44. Kost-Byerly S, Chalkiadis G: Developing a pediatric pain service. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012; 22:1016–24.
45. Odell S, Logan DE. Pediatric pain management: the multidisciplinary approach. J Pain Res. 2013; 6: 785–790.
46. Martin RJ, DiFiore JM, Jana L, et al. Persistence of the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia in preterm infants. J Pediatr. 1998; 132: 960–964.
47. Cohen G, Malcolm G, Henderson-Smart D. Ventilatory response of the newborn infant to mild hypoxia. Pediatr Pulmonol 1997; 24: 163–172.
48. Lavonas EJ, Reynolds KM, Dart RC. Therapeutic acetaminophen is not associated with liver injury in children: a systematic review. Pediatrics 2010; 126: 1430–1444.
49. Berde CB, Sethna NF. Analgesics for the treatment of pain in children. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 1094–1103.
50. World Health Organization. The selection and use of essential medicines. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2011.
51. Anand KJ, Anderson BJ, Holford NH, et al. Morphine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in preterm and term neonates: secondary results from the NEOPAIN trial. Br J Anaesth. 2008; 101: 680–689.
52. Yamada J, Stinson J, Lamba J, Dickson A, McGrath PJ, Stevens B. A review of systematic reviews on pain interventions in hospitalized infants. Pain Res Manag. 2008; 13: 413–420.
53. Anghelescu DL, Faughnan LG, Oakes LL, Windsor KB, Pei D, Burgoyne LL. Parent-controlled PCA for pain management in pediatric oncology: is it safe? J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012; 34: 416–20.
54. McDonnell C, Pehora C, Crawford MW. PCA-derived factors that may be predictive of postoperative pain in pediatric patients: a possible role for the PCA ratio. J Opioid Manag. 2012; 8: 39–44.
55. Minardi C, Sahillioğlu E, Astuto M, Colombo M, Ingelmo PM. Sedation and analgesia in pediatric intensive care. Curr Drug Targets. 2012; 13: 936–943.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966