RESEARCH PAPER
Microbiological analysis of bioaerosols collected from Hospital Emergency Departments and ambulances
 
More details
Hide details
1
Biological Threats Identification and Countermeasure Centre, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Puławy, Poland
2
Faculty of Agrobioengineering, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Laboratory of Mycology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland
3
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland
5
Pathology Department, Biostructure Centrum, Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
6
School of Public Health, Centre for Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018;25(2):274–279
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction and objective:
The goal of the study was a microbiological, qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioaerosol at the workplace of medical personnel (Health Emergency Departments (HEDs), ambulances), and comparative administration offices with an expected neutral occupational exposure to biological agents measured with individual Button Sampler.

Material and methods:
Personal sampling was performed with Button Sampler instrument loaded with gelatine filters in 10 HEDs, in 9 ambulances and in 9 offices to assess the occupational biological agents’ exposure in air. Sampling was conducted from March until April 2016. Samples were quantitatively assessed for viable and total number of bacteria and fungi. Routine procedures for microbiological diagnostics were implemented. Data were analysed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests with α=0.05. P value less than 0.05 were considered significant.

Results:
At the workplaces assessed, the concentrations of viable microorganisms in HEDs were 1.3×102 – 4.2×103 CFU/m3 for bacteria, 3.4×100 – 8.1×101 CFU/m3 for fungi; in ambulances 1.3×102 – 1.4×103 CFU/m3 (bacteria), 6.7×100 – 6.5×102 CFU/m3 (fungi) and in offices 4.2×101 – 5.0×103 CFU/m3 (bacteria), 0 – 7.9×102 CFU/m3(fungi). In outdoor air, the number of microorganisms reached the level: 1.0×102 – 5.9×102 CFU/m3 for bacteria and 1.5×102 – 8.2×102 CFU/m3 for fungi. The predominant isolated bacteria were Gram-positive cocci. The prevalent fungi species belonged to the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium.

Conclusions:
The quantitative assessment of examined indoor air was similar to control outdoor air, and were relatively low. The level of microbiological contamination did not exceed 5×103 CFU/m3 which is recommended as an admissible level in public spaces in Poland.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Agata Bielawska-Drózd   
Biological Threats Identification and Countermeasure Center, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Puławy, Lubelska 2 St., Poland, Lubelska 2, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
 
REFERENCES (34):
1. National, Sanitary Inspectorate, Country Sanitary Conditions Reports, 2009–2011. [In Polish].
2. Charkowska A. Wydawnictwo Instytutu Ogrzewnictwa i Wentylacji PW, Warszawa, 1996. [In Polish].
3. Górny RL. Biohazards: standards, guidelines, and proposals for threshold limit values. Pod Met Oceny Środ Pracy. 2004; (3): 17–39.
4. Ekhaise FO, Ighosewe OU, Ajakpovi OD. Hospital indoor airborne microflora in private and government owned hospitals in Benin City Nigeria. World J Med Sci. 2008; 3(1): 19–23.
5. Hoseinzadeh E, Samarghandie MR, Ghiasian SA, Alikhani MY, Roshanaie G. Evaluation of bioaerosols in five educational hospitals wards air in Hamedan, during 2011–2012. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6(6): e10704. http://doi.org/10.5812/jjm 10704. [cited 2.10.2017].
6. Mirzaei R, Shahriary E, Qureshi MI, Rakhshkhorshid A, Khammary A, Mohammadi M. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of bio-aerosols in surgery rooms and emergency department of an educational hospital. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014; 7(10): e11688. http://doi.org/10.5812/jjm.11. [cited 2.10.2017].
7. Gołofit-Szymczak M, Ławniczek-Wałczyk A, Górny RL. Ilościowa i jakościowa kontrola szkodliwych czynników biologicznych w środowisku pracy. Pod Met Oceny Środ Pracy. 2013; 76(2): 5–17.
8. Luksamijarulkul P, Pipitsangjan S. Microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination in ambulances during patient services. Oman Med J. 2015; 30(2): 104–110. http://doi.org/10.5001/omj.20. [cited 13.09.2017].
9. Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH. Compendium of soil fungi (Vol. 1). London Academic Press, 1980.
10. Barnett HL, Hunter BB. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. St. Paul Minnesota APS Press, 1998.
11. Watanabe T. Pictorial atlas of soil and seed fungi. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group 2010; http://doi.org/10.1201/ebk143. [cited13.09.2017].
12. Ellis MB. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. London Eastern Press, 1971.
13. Krzyściak P, Skóra M, Macura AB. Atlas of human pathogenic fungi. Wrocław MedPharm, Poland, 2011; http://www.medpharm.pl. [cited13.09.2017].
14. Index Fungorum Organization, 2016; http://www.indexfungorum.org. [cited13.09.2017].
15. Hoog GS. Risk assessment of fungi reported from humans and animals. Mycoses. 1996; 39: 407–417.
16. Nourmoradi H, Amin MM, Hatamzadeh MI, Nikaeen M. Evaluation of bio-aerosols concentration in the different wards of three educational hospitals in Iran. Int J Environ Health Eng. 2012; 1(1): 47.
17. Özdemir M, Gündem NS, Baysal B. Investigation of bacterial counts in air at intensive care units and operating rooms. Anatol J Clin Investig. 2010; 4(1): 1–4.
18. Sudharsanam S, Swaminathan S, Ramalingam A, Thangavel G, Annamalai R, Steinberg R, et al. Characterization of indoor bioaerosols from a hospital ward in a tropical setting. African Health Sciences. 2012; 12(2): 217–225.
19. Wlazło A, Górny R L, Złotkowska R, Lawniczek A, Ludzeń-Izbińska B, Harkawy AS, et al. Workers’ Exposure to Selected Biological Agents in Libraries of Upper Silesia. Med Pr. 2008; 59(2): 159–170.
20. Gołofit-Szymczak M, Górny RL. Bacterial and Fungal Aerosol in Air-Conditioned Office Buildings in Warsaw Poland – The Winter Season. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2010; 16(4): 465–476.
21. Gołofit-Szymczak M, Górny RL, Ławniczek-Wałczyk A, Cyprowski M, Stobnicka A. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners. Med Pr. 2014; 66(6): 779–791.
22. Skowroń J, Górny R L. Szkodliwe czynniki biologiczne. W: Augustyńska D., Pośniak M. [red.]. CIOP-PIB, Warszawa; 2014, ss.181–190.
23. Yang CS. Fungi in the air: what do results of fungal air samples mean? EMLabP&K. 2003; 1–3. https://www.emlab.com/media/re. [cited 13.09.2017].
24. Meklin T, Husman T, Vepsäläinen A, Vahteristo M, Koivisto J, Halla‐Aho J, et al. Indoor air microbes and respiratory symptoms of children in moisture damaged and reference schools. Indoor Air. 2002; 12(3): 175–183.
25. Flannigan B. Air sampling for fungi in indoor environments. J Aerosol Sci. 1997; 28(3): 381–392.
26. Dutkiewicz J, Cisak E, Sroka J, Wójcik-Fatla A, Zając V. Biological agents as occupational hazards-selected issues. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 286–293.
27. Rainer J, Peintner U, Pöder R. Biodiversity and concentration of airborne fungi in a hospital environment. Mycopathol. 2000; 149(2): 87–97.
28. Mishra SK, Ajello L, Ahearn DG, Burge HA, Kurup VP, Pierson D. Environmental mycology and its importance to public health. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 1992; (supp1): 30, 287–305.
29. Robbins CA, Swenson LJ, Nealley ML, Kelman BJ, Gots RE. Health effect of mycotoxins in indoor air. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2000; 15(10): 773–784.
30. Grant C, Hunter CA, Flannigan B, Bravery AF. The moisture requirements of moulds isolated from domestic dwelling. Int Biodet. 1989; 25(4): 259–284.
31. Vujanovic V, Smoragiewicz W, Krzysztyniak K. Airborne fungal ecological niche determination as one of the possibilities for indirect mycotoxin risk assessment in indoor air. Environ Toxicol. 2001; 16(1): 1–8.
32. Hedayati MT, Pasqualotto AC, Warn PA, Bowyer P, Denning DW. Aspergillus flavus : human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer. Microb. 2007; 153(6): 1677–1692.
33. Wang CH, Chen BT, Han BC, Liu ACY, Hung PC, Chen CY et al. Filed Evaluation of personal sampling methods for Multiple Bioaerosols. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0120308.
34. Aizenberg V, Reponen T, Grinshpun SA, Willeke K. Performance of Air-O-Cell, Burkard, and Button Samplers for total enumeration of airborne spores. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 2000; 61(6): 855–864.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966