How much do we know about genetic predisposition of hypersensitivity pneumonitis?
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Department of Clinical Immunology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Barbara Mackiewicz   

Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University ofLublin, 20-954, Lublin, Poland
Introduction and Objective:
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an interstitial lung disease caused by iterative inhalation of various environmental agents. The clinical presentation is variable, acute HP commonly presents an inflammatory response, whereas the development and clinical consequences in chronic HP may be similar to IPF (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis). The aim of the study is to present the latest discoveries regarding the genetic predisposition of HP.

Material and Methods:
The appropriate scientific literature was reviewed and analyzed.

Studies have discovered relevant gene polymorphisms in HP, including polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex in the metalloproteinases genes. The length of the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere has been investigated and discovered to be important. Recently, the need to study miRNAs in ILD (interstitial lung disease) has been highlighted.

Exposed HP developed only in some people and a genetic susceptibility significantly increases the risk. Further more current studies on large groups of patients are needed to learn more about the genetic predisposition and risk factors of HP.

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