Environmental risk factors for cancer – review paper
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Institute of Healthcare, State School of Technology and Economics, Jaroslaw, Poland
Chair and Department of Jaw Orthopaedics, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
I Chair and Department of General and Transplant Surgery and Nutritional Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Institute of Technical Engineering State School of Technology and Economics, Jaroslaw, Poland
The cancerous process is result of disturbed cell function. This is due to the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes within the cell, expressed in the accumulation of chromosomal or molecular aberrations, which leads to genetic instability. It is difficult to assess the validity of individual aetiological factors, but it can be concluded that interaction of various risk factors has the largest contribution to the cancer development. Environmental, exogenous and endogenous factors as well as individual factors, including genetic predisposition contribute to the development of cancer. Epidemiological research on the development of malignant tumors has focused over the years on the determinants of environmental and genetic factors of cancer incidence and mortality rate. According to current state of knowledge, 80–90% of malignant tumors are caused by external environmental factors (carcinogens). Epidemiological studies have proved that the main factors responsible for the development of malignant neoplasia among humans are environmental factors arising from human behaviour. It has been confirmed that smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, diet, and reproductive behaviour are important for the development of malignant neoplasia in the human population. According to the World Health Organization, in 2020 we may expect about 10 million deaths, including 7–8 million in the developing countries, while this number in the developed countries will not change and will be 2–3 million. The aim this study was systematization of knowledge concerning the risk factors of malignant tumours and supplementing them with the latest research results.
Anna Maria Lewandowska   
Institute of Healthcare, State School of Technology and Economics in Jaroslaw, Poland, ul. Pasieka 21F, 37-500 Jarosław, Poland
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