A growing body of evidence confirms that immune activation and low-grade inflammation could be defined as risks factors for the development and progression of mood episodes. A suggested mechanism leading to immune-inflammatory imbalance is the change in gut microbiota composition provoked by intestinal permeability. Three cases of patients with first episode of depression: a 30-year-old man and two 41 and 46-year-old women are presented in the study. In all cases, the episode was proceeded by the infection of the upper respiratory tract and improper antibiotics therapy. Despite the subsidence of infection, gastrointestinal and depression symptoms appeared. Psychiatric care, anti-depressant treatment, and probiotic supplementation were applied with positive results. Changes in gut microbiota and gut permeability are mechanisms probably involved in the development of mood disorders among the described patients. Lack of microbiota and gut permeability analysis allows defining just a temporary, potential cause-effect relationship between disease symptoms and intestinal microbiome alternations. Further studies to establish the importance of gut bacteria, immune-inflammatory cascade at depression etiopathogenesis and therapy are needed.
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