RESEARCH PAPER
DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININ IN COMBINATION WITH α-KETOGLUTARATE LIMITS THE EXCRETION OF NITROGEN VIA URINARY TRACT
 
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1
Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Animal & Veterinary Basic Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, Copenhagen University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark
3
Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Rafał Filip   

Department of Endoscopy, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008;15(2):309–315
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of both phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) alone, and in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on nitrogen elimination via the urinary tract as opposed to the gastrointestinal tract of rats. In experiment 1, rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups, (1) Control and (2) PHA, whilst in experiment 2, rats were assigned to one of three experimental groups, (1) Control, (2) AKG, and (3) AKG+PHA. AKG was administered via drinking water, while PHA was administered via a stomach tube. The stock solution of crude PHA in 0.9% NaCl, was (20% w/v) in water: 50 mg PHA/ml, 20 ml/kg body wt. Rats were 7 weeks old at the start of the experiments. Significantly lower daily weight gains in the AKG+PHA and PHA groups (p<0.05) were observed compared to the Control and AKG groups. Increased duodenal crypt depth (138%; p<0.05) was noticeable in the AKG+PHA group cf Controls; however, there was no significant difference in the thickness of the tunica mucosa. In the AKG+PHA group, the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the granula of neuronal cells of the submucosal parasympathetic ganglia was noticeable, although no expression was found in goblet cells. Finally, signifi cant reduction in N excretion in urine was observed in the AKG+PHA, compared with the Control groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that a combined PHA and AKG treatment stimulated the small bowel growth via enhanced epithelial turnover, reduced the N excreted in urine and increased the N in faeces.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966