Cancer prevention – review paper
More details
Hide details
State School of Technology and Economics, Jarosław, Poland
Chair and Department of Jaw Orthopaedics, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Chair and Department of General and Transplant Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Anna Maria Lewandowska   

State School of Technology and Economics in Jaroslaw, Czarniecki Street 16, 37-500, Jarosław, Poland
Every year there is an increase in the number of cases and deaths due to the majority of cancers. Currently, these diseases constitute the second cause of death in Poland and the USA. The number of cases of malignant neoplasms in Poland has more than doubled over the last three decades. According to the National Cancer Registry, in Poland about 95.5 people per thousand die every year from malignant neoplasms. Current epidemiological data on cancer is worrying because the World Health Organization predicts a significant increase in the incidence of cancer in the general population. This problem, which is significant on the global scale, demands the search for more effective prevention methods so that more and more attention is paid to both primary and secondary prevention. Prevention and early detection of cancer have become a priority for the national health policy of many European countries. Numerous studies around the world prove that reducing the risk of cancer is most effective through adopting a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to carcinogens, combined with regular screening.

The aim of the study was to review knowledge on cancer prevention, including the latest research results.

Due to the systematic increase in the incidence of cancer, a strong emphasis should be placed on prevention. Preventive actions bring benefits not only to the individual, but are an important aspect of health policy. The importance of primary prevention in relation to healthy people has been demonstrated, including secondary prevention aimed at controlling risk factors in relation to persons exposed to them. The combination of these activities becomes an important element in maintaining the health of the individual, as well as society.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures, Atlanta 2015. document/acspc044552.pdf (27.12.2015).
Gajda M, Kowalska M. Internet in interventional studies on cancer prevention. Hygeia Public Health. 2016; 51(2): 115–123.
Swora-Cwynar E, et al. Impact of selected food ingredients on the prevention of cancer. Cosmos. Probl Biol Sci. 2018; 67, 2 (319): 391–396.
Krzyżak M, Maślach D, Szpak A, Piotrowska K, Florczyk K, Skrodzka M, Owoc A, Bojar I. Tendencje dotyczące potencjalnych utraconych lat życia z powodu głównych przyczyn zgonów w populacji miejskiej i wiejskiej w Polsce, 2002–2011. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015; 22 (3): 564–571. 10.5604/12 321 966.1168657.
Wiszniewska M, et al. The prophylactic operational model integrated with occupational healthcare – Prophylactic of some types of cancers among women. Med Pr. 2018; 69(4): 439–455, https://doi: 10.13075/ mp.5893.00665.
Fitzmaurice C, et al. The global burden of cancer 2013. JAMA Oncol. 2015; 1(4): 505–527, https://doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0735.
Fern LA, et al. How frequently do young people with potential cancer symptoms present in primary care? Brit J Gen Pract. 2011; 5: 223–230.
Adamowicz K, Zaucha JM, Majkowicz M. Assessment of the state of knowledge regarding cancer prevention among patients of the Breast Cancer Prevention Clinic Nowotwory. J Oncol. 2011; 61(5): 449–456.
Chybicka A. Nutrition, movement and cancer in children. Medical News. 2003; 72(4): 327–329.
Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2008 v2.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from: http://globocan., accessed on 9.11.2012. 2.
Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening, The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. Lancet. 2012; 380: 1778–1786.
Perek D. Problems in diagnosing cancer in children. Pediatric Rev. 2008; 38(3): 209–213.
Miyawaki R, Shibata A, Ishii K, Oka K. Obtaining information about cancer: prevalence and preferences among Japanese adults. BMC Public Health. 2015; 15(1): 145, https://doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1510-2.
Ettel G, Nathanson I, Ettel D, et al. How do adolescents access health information? And do they ask their physicians? Perm J. 2012; 16(1): 35–38, https://doi: 10.7812/tpp/11-125.
Hendershot CS, Otto JM, Collins SE, et al. Evaluation of a Brief WebBased Genetic Feedback Intervention for Reducing Alcohol-Related Health Risks Associated with ALDH2. Ann Behav Med. 2010; 40(1): 77–88, https://doi: 10.1007/s12160-010-9207-3.
Jander A, Crutzen R, Mercken L, et al. A Web-based computertailored game to reduce binge drinking among 16 to 18 year old Dutch adolescents: development and study protocol. BMC Public Health. 2014; 9(14): 1054, https://doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1054.
Dedert EA, et al. Public health clinical demonstration project for smoking cessation in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Addict Behav. 2010; 35(1): 19–22, https://doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.007.
Momin B, et al. Traditional and innovative promotional strategies of tobacco cessation services: a review of the literature. J Community Health. 2014; 39(4): 800–809, https://doi: 10.1007/s10900-014-9825-y.
Myung SK, McDonnell DD, Kazinets G, et al. Effects of Web- and computer-based smoking cessation programs: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169(10): 929–937, https://doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.109.
Puckett M, Neri A, Thompson T, et al. Tobacco cessation among users of telephone and web-based interventions-four states, 2011–2012. MMWR Weekly. 2015. 63(51): 1217–1221.
Sarna L, Bialous SA, Zou XN, et al. Evaluation of a web-based educational programme on changes in frequency of nurses’ interventions to help smokers quit and reduce second-hand smoke exposure in China. J Adv Nurs. 2016; 72(1): 118–126, https://doi: 10.1111/jan.12816.
Strecher VJ, McClure JB, Alexander GL, et al. Web-Based SmokingCessation Programs. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 34(5): 373–381, https:// doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.12.024.
Bienkiewicz M, Bator E, Bronkowska M. Dietary fiber and its importance in health promotion. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2015; 96(1): 57–63.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. AICR, Washington 2018.
Kirsh VA, et al. Supplemental and Dietary Vitamin E, β–Carotene, and Vitamin C Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 15; 98(4): 245–54, https://doi: 10.1093/jnci/djj050.
Lee IM, et al. Vitamin E in the Prevention of Prostate Cancer: Where Are We Today. J National Cancer Inst. 2006; 98, 4, 15: 225–226.
Klein EA, et al. Vitamin E and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: Updated Results of The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. JAMA. 2011; 12, 306(14): 1549–1556, https://doi:10.1001/jama.2011.....
Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008; 300(18): 2123–33, https://doi:10.1001/jama.2008.....
Greenwald P, Anderson D, Nelson SA, Taylor PR. Clinical trials of vitamin and mineral supplements for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85(1): 314–317, https://doi: 10.1093/ajcn/85.1.314S.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. World Health Organization. EPIC Study. php (11.01.2020).
Kruk J. Fruits and vegetables consumption and the risk of breast cancer. Contemporary Oncology. 2006; 10(5): 224–230.
Petrovic Voin, Nepal Anala, Olaisen Camilla, Anti-Cancer Potential of Homemade Fresh Garlic Extract Is Related to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress. Nutrients. 2018; 10(4): 450, https:// doi: 10.3390/nu10040450.
Marciniec K, Włodarczyk-Marciniec B. Anticancer properties of garlic. Post Fitoter. 2008; 2: 90–95.
Lanou AJ, Sevenson B. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports. Cancer Manag Res. 2011; 3: 1–8, https://doi:10.2147/ CMR.S6910.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. AICR, Washington 2007.
Kromołowska R, Wołosiak R, Sadowska A. Natural anticancer substances in food. Post. Techn. Przetw. Spoż. 2011; 1: 87–91.
Athar M, Back JH, Tang X, Kim KH, Kopelovich L, Bickers DR, Kim AL. Resveratrol: a review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007; 1, 224(3): 274–283, https:// doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.025.
Aluyen JK, Ton QN, Tran T, Yang AE, Gottlieb HB, Bellanger RA. Resveratrol: potential as anticancer agent. J Diet Suppl. 2012; 9(1): 45–56, https://doi: 10.3109/19390211.2011.650842.
Salman H, Bergman M, Djaldetti M, Bessler H. Lycopene affects proliferation and apoptosis of four malignant cell lines. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007; 61(6): 366–369, https://doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2....
Zalega J, Szostak-Węgierek D. Nutrition in cancer prevention. Part III. Diets of anticancer properties. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2013; 94(1): 59–70.
Ostrowska L. What should be directed in the choise of diet for the patients with metabolic syndrom? Wybrane Problemy Kliniczne 2011; 2: 11–18.
Kobylińska A, Janas KM. Health – promoting effect of quercetin in human diet. Post Hig Med Dosw. 2015; 69: 51–62.
Radzikowski C, Wietrzyk J, Grynkiewicz G, Opolski A. Genisteina – izoflawonoid soi o zróżnicowanym mechanizmie działania – implikacje kliniczne w lecznictwie i prewencji chorób nowotworowych. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (online). 2004; 58: 128–139.
Gryszczyńska A, Gryszczyńska B, Opala B. Carotenoids. natural sources, biosynthesis, influence on human body. Postępy Fitoter. 2011; 2: 127–143.
Jacobs C, Hutton B, Ng T, Shorr 2, Clemons M. Is there a role for oral or intravenous ascorbate (vitamin C) in treating patients with cancer? A systematic review. Oncologist 2015; 20(2): 210–223, https://doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2014–0381.
Zabłocka K, Biernat J. The influence of selected dietary components on lung cancer risk – vitamins and provitamins. Bromatol Chem Toksykol. 2010; 43(2):145–151, https://doi:66b60a43-fec6-46f9....
Kong P, Cai Q, Geng Q, et al. Vitamin intake reduce the risk of gastric cancer: meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized and observational studies. PLoS One. 2014; 9(12): e116060, https://doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116060.
Jośko J, Ratman R, Ratman K. Angiopreventive role of vitamins. Współcz Onkol. 2008; 12(4): 168–172.
Slatore CG, Littman AJ, White E. Long-Term Use of Supplemental Multivitamins, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Folate Does Not Reduce the Risk of Lung Cancer. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008; 177(5): 524–530, https://doi: 10.1164/rccm.200709-1398OC.
Cardenas E, Ghosh R. Vitamin E: a dark horse at the crossroad of cancer management. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013; 86(7): 845–852, https://doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.07.018.
Wang YY, Wang XL, Yu ZJ. Vitamin C and E intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014; 7(11): 4154–4164.
Pericleous M, Mandair D, Caplin ME. Diet and supplements and their impact on colorectal cancer. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2013; 4(4): 409–423, https://doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2013.003.
Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED, et al. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96(2): 252–61, https:// doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.045260.
Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Kim J, et al. Could Vitamin D sufficiency improve the survival of colorectal cancer patients? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 148: 239–44, https://doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.12.010.
Bergman P, Sperneder S, Höijer J, Bergqvist J, Björkhem-Bergman L. Low vitamin D levels are associated with higher opioid dose in palliative cancer patients − results from an observational study in Sweden. Plos One. 2015; 10(5): e0128223, https://doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0128223.
Czyżewska-Majchrzak Ł, Paradowska P. The effects of folate deficiency and its supplementation. Nowiny Lek. 2010; 79(6): 457–463.
Czeczot H. Folic acid in physiology and pathology. Postępy Hig Med Dosw. 2008; 62: 405–419.
Eyre H, et al. Preventing Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease, and Diabetes: a Common Agenda for the American Cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Heart Association. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27(7): 1812–24, https://doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.7.1812.
Vance RB. Common interests and common goals: achieving greater progress in preventive health through strategic collaborations. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004 J; 54(4): 188 9, https://doi:10.3322/canjclin.5....
Ghawi S.K, Methven L, Niranjan K. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba). Food Chem. 2012; 138(2–3): 1734–1741, https://doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.119.
61. World Cancer Researcg Fund. American Institute for Cancer Researcg. Analysing research on cancer prevention and survival. The cancer proces. 2018.
Park Y, Hunter JD, Spiegelman D, et al. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. JAMA. 2005; 294(22): 2849–2857, https://doi: 10.1001/jama.294.22.2849.
Kimokoki WR, Newby PK. Dietary Patterns, Smoking, and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Complex Association. Curr Nutr Rep. 2013, 2(2): 113–125.
Tapsell LC, Neale EP, Probst Y. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease: Insights and Challenges for Considering Food Groups and Nutrient Sources. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2019; 21(3): 9, https://doi: 10.1007/s11883-019-0770-1.
Huxley RR, Woodward M, Clifton P. The Epidemiologic Evidenceand Potential Biological Mechanismsfora Protective Effect of Dietary Fiber on the Risk of Colorectal Cancer. Curr Nutr Rep. 2013; 2: 63–70.
Schulze MB, Martínez-González MA, Fung TT, Lichtenstein AH, Forouhi NG. Food based dietary patterns and chronic disease prevention. BMJ. 2018; 13(361): 2396, https://doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2396.
Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R, et al. Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet. 2003; 3(361): 1496–1501, https://doi: 10.1016/s01406736(03)13174-1.
Wiseman M. The second World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research expert report. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008; 67(3): 253–6, https://doi: 10.1017/S002966510800712X.
Aune D, Chan DS, LauR, et al. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2011; 343: d6617, https://doi:10.1136/bmj.d6617.
Zhang Z, Xu G, Ma M, Yang J, Liu 3. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterol. 2013; 145(1): 113–120, https://doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.001.
Dong JY, He K, Wang P, Qin LQ. Dietary fiberintake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94(3): 900–905, https://doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.015578.
Rudkowska I. Functional food for health: Focus on diabetes. Maturitas. 2009; 62(3): 263–9, https://doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.01.011.
US Department of Health and Human Services, US Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In: US Department of Health and Human Services, US Department of Agriculture, editors. 8th Edition ed. Washington DC, United States of America2015.
Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R, Ferrari P, et al. Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet. 2003; 361(9368): 1496–501, https://doi: 10.1016/s01406736(03)13174-1.
Farvid MS, Cho E, Chen WY, Eliassen AH, Willett WC. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(8): 1909– 1920, https://doi: 10.1002/ijc.29218.
Fung TT, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Holmes MD. Lowcarbohydrate diets, dietary approaches to stop hypertension-style diets, and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2011; 174(6): 652–660, https://doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr148.
Irwin ML, Wilder Smith A, McTiernan A, et al. Influence of pre-and postdiagnosis physical activity on mortality in breast cancer survivors: The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26(24): 3958–64, https://doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.15.9822.
Emaus A, Thune I. Physical activity and lung cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2011; 186: 101–133, https://doi: 10.1007/978-3642-04231-7_5.
Hojman P, Gehl J, Christensen JF, Pedersen BK. Molecular Mechanisms Linking Exercise to Cancer Prevention and Treatment. Cell Metab. 2018; 9, 27(1): 10–21, https://doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.09.015.
Grossmann ME, Nkhata KJ, Mizuno NK, Ray A, Cleary MP. Effects of adiponectin on breast cancer cell growth and signalingMetab. Br J Cancer. 2008; 29, 98(2): 370–379, https://doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604166.
Neilson HK, Friedenreich ChM, Brockton NT, Millikan RC. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: Proposed biologic mechanisms and areas for future research. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(1): 11–27, https://doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0756.
Friedenreich CM, Woolcott CG, McTiernan A, et al. Alberta physical activity and breast cancer prevention trial: Sex hormone changes in a year-long exercise intervention among postmenopausal women. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28(9): 1458–1466, https://doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.24.9557.
Leon ME, Peruga A, McNeill A, Kralikova E, Guha N, Minozzi S, Espina C, Schüz J. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(1): 20–33, https://doi:10.1016/j.canep.20....
Carroll Chapman SL, Wu LT. E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison. J Psychiatr Res. 2014; 54: 43–54, https://doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.03.005.
World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer, Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog. Risks Hum. 2007; 89: 1–592.
Diethelm PA, Farley TM. Refuting tobacco-industry funded research: empirical data shows decline in smoking prevalence following introduction of plain packaging in Australia. Tob Prev Cessation 2015; 1(6): 2459–3087, https://doi: 10.18332/tpc/60650.
Stark MJ, Rohde K, Maher JE, et al. The impact of clean indoor air exemptions and preemption policies on the prevalence of a tobaccospecific lung carcinogen among nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers. Am J Public Health. 2007 August; 97(8): 1457–1463, https:// doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.094086.
Becher H, Belau M, Winkler V, Aigner A. Estimating lung cancer mortality attributable to second hand smoke exposure in Germany. Int J Public Health. 2018 Apr; 63(3): 367–375, https://doi:10.1007/s00038-017....
Thomas JL, et al. Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in children exposed to secondhand or thirdhand tobacco smoke in their homes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jun; 20(6): 1213–21. https://doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-1027.
Cogliano VJ, Baan R, Straif K, et al. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011; 103(24): 1827–39. https:// doi: 10.1093/jnci/djr483.
Chang JS, Straif K, Guha N. The role of alcohol dehydrogenase genes in head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of ADH1B and ADH1C. Mutagenesis 2012; 27(3): 275–86. https://doi: 10.1093/mutage/ger073.
Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Herrero R, Muñoz N. Comparison of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx worldwide: etiological clues. Oral Oncol. 2000 Jan; 36(1): 106–15, https://doi: 10.1016/s1368-8375(99)00070-6.
World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer. Personal habits and indoor combustions. A review of human carcinogens. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 2012; 100: 1–538.
Herzog B, Wehrle M, Quass K. Photostability of UV absorber systems in sunscreens. Photochem Photobiol. 2009; 85(4): 869–78, https://doi: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2009.00544.x.
Guan VX, Probst YC, Neale EP, Batterham MJ, Tapsell LC. Identifying usual food choices at meals in overweight and obese study volunteers: implications for dietary advice. Br J Nutr. 2018; 120(4): 472–480, https:// doi: 10.1017/S0007114518001587.
Holick MF. Sunlight. Sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer: how much sunlight do we need? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 810: 1–16.
Rice M. For the European Medicines Agency, A Decade of Chellenges. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97, 19(5): 1403–1405, https://doi:10.1093/jnci/dji35....
Zieliński S. Diversity in cancer rates, control programs matches diversity of European Union. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 5; 97(19): 1398–9, https://doi:10.1093/jnci/dji35....
Stefanowicz A, Kulik T, Pacian A, Dyduch A, Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek D. Importance of training family physicians in oncology in the prophylaxis of malignant cancer in phc. Med Og. 2007; 13(4): 293–302.
Małecka I, Wysocki J. Hepatitis B – prevention. Guide for GPs. 2001; 4, 5(68): 108–111.
Majewski S, Sikorski M. A breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer and other changes associated with HPV infections. Guide for GPs. 2007; 2(10): 108-113.
Griesser H, Sander H, Walczak C, Hilfrich RA. HPV vaccine protein L1 predicts disease outcome of high-risk HPV+ early squamous dysplastic lesions. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009; 132(6): 840–845, https://doi:10.1309/AJCPCU0HBF....
Carlos RC, Dempsey AF, Patel DA, Dalton VK. Cervical Cancer Prevention Through Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Using the “Teachable Moment” for Educational Interventions. Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 115(4): 834–838, https://doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e....
Khan K, Curtis CR, Ekwueme DU, Stokley S, et al. Preventing Cervical Cancer. Cancer 2008; 113(10 suppl): 3004–12.
Dempsey AF, Gebremariam A, Koutsky L, Manhart L. Behavior in early adolescence and risk of human papillomavirus infection as a young adult: results from a population-based study. Pediatrics. 2008; 122(1): 1–7, https://doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2515.
Rand CM, Shone LP, Albertin C, Auinger P, Klein JD, Szilagyi PG. National health care visit patterns of adolescents: implications for delivery of new adolescent vaccines. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007; 161(3): 252–259, https://doi:10.1001/archpedi.1....
Insinga RP, Dasbach EJ, Elbasha EH. Assessing the annual economic burden of preventing and treating anogenital human papillomavirusrelated disease in the US: analytic framework and review of the literature. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005; 23(11): 1107–1122, https://doi: 10.2165/00019053-200523110-00004.
American Academy of Family Physicians. Joint principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Del Med J. 2008; 80(1): 21–22.
Knight SB, Crosbie PA, Balata H, Chudziak J, Hussell T, Dive C. Progress and prospects of early detection in lung cancer Open Biol. 2017; 7(9): 170070, https://doi: 10.1098/rsob.170070.
Smith RA, et al. Cancer screening in the United States, 2017: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017; 67(2): 100–121. https://doi: 10.3322/caac.21392.
Oken MM, et al. Screening by chest radiograph and lung cancer mortality: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) randomized trial. JAMA. 2011; 306(17): 1865–1873, https://doi:10.1001/jama.2011.....
Franc EL, et al. Human Papillomavirus and Cancer Prevention: Gaps in Knowledge and Prospects for Research, Policy, and Advocacy. Vaccine. 2012; 30(5): F175–F182, https://doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.092.
Wentzensen N, Arbyn M. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions. Prev Med. 2017; 98: 33–35, https://doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.12.040.
Demarco M, et al. Validation of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Cervical Screening Test That Provides Expanded HPV Typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2018; 56(5): e01910–17, https://doi: 10.1128/JCM.01910-17.
Schüz J, Espina C, Villain P, Herrero R, et al. European code against cancer 4th edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(1): 1–10, https://doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.05.009.
Anderson AS, Key TJ, Norat T, et al. European code against cancer 4th edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(1): 34–45, https://doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.01.017.
Scoccianti C, Cecchini M, Anderson AS, et al. European code against cancer 4th edition: Alcohol drinking and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(1): 67–74, https://doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.01.007.
Brenner DR, Brockton NT, Kotsopoulos J, et al. Breast cancer survival among young women: A review of the role of modifiable lifestyle factors. Cancer Causes Control. 2016; 27(4):459–472, https://doi: 10.1007/s10552-016-0726-5.
Harris HR, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk. Int. J. Cancer. 2016; 138(11): 2657–2664, https://doi: 10.1002/ijc.30015.
Fourtanier A, Moyal D, Seité S. Sunscreens containing the broadspectrum UVA absorber, Mexoryl SX, prevent the cutaeous detrimental effects of UV exposure: a review of clinical study results. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2008; 24(4): 164–174, https://doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0781.2008.00365.x.
Nomura SJ, Inoue-Choi M, Lazovich D, Robien K. WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women with and without non-modifiable risk factors. Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(11): 2602-2615, https://doi: 10.1002/ijc.29994.
Oeffinger KC, Fontham ET, Etzioni R, et al. Breast cancer screening for women at average risk: 2015 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. JAMA. 2015; 314(15): 1599–15614, https://doi:10.1001/jama.2015.....
Fletcher SW, Elmore JG. Mammographic screening for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 1672–1680, https://doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp021804.
Armaroli P, Villain P, Suonio E, et al. European code against cancer 4th edition: Cancer screening. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(1): 139–152, https://doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.10.021.
Alemar B, Gregório C, Herzog J, et al. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational profile and prevalence in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) probands from Southern Brazil: Are international testing criteria appropriate for this specific population? PLoS One. 2017; 12(11): e0187630, https://doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187630.
Santen RJ, Boyd NF, Chlebowski RT, et al. Critical assessment of new risk factors for breast cancer: Considerations for development of an improved risk prediction model. Endocrine-Related Cancer. 2007; 14(2):169–187, https://doi: 10.1677/ERC-06-0045.