Influence of environment exposures on the frequency of contact allergies in children and adolescents
More details
Hide details
Department of Clinical and Environmental Allergology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
St. Louis Children\'s Hospital, Krakow, Poland
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration (MSWiA) Hospital, Krakow, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(1):11-16
Contact allergy is detected in every second child with the symptoms of chronic or recurrent eczema, and in every third child the final diagnosis is allergic contact dermatitis. Haptens responsible for the majority of contact sensitizations in children are substances ubiquitous in our environment, e.g. metals, preservatives, fragrances, propolis, and balsam of Peru. Much concern is provoked by the higher rates of sensitization to fragrances in younger children, compared to adolescents, which may be attributed to the higher exposure nowadays of infants and children to fragrant products. On the other hand, a limitation of exposure to the preservatives thimerosal and Kathon CG has resulted in decreased rates of sensitization to these haptens. Altogether, these observations demonstrate that the rates of contact sensitizations in children reflect changes in their environment, and limitations imposed on the use of haptens with strong sensitizing properties, may be an effective tool in the prevention of contact allergy.
Czarnobilska E, Obtułowicz K, Wsołek K, Piętowska J, Śpiewak R. Mechanisms of nickel allergy. Przegl Lek. 2007; 64: 502-505.
Czarnobilska E, Obtułowicz K, Wsołek K. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction and its subtypes. Przegl Lek. 2007; 64: 506-508.
Śpiewak R, Piętowska J, Curzytek K. Nickel – a unique allergen. From molecular structure to European legislation. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2007; 3: 851-859.
Czarnobilska E, Jenner B, Kapusta M, Obtulowicz K, Curzytek K, Thor P, Spiewak R. The role of Interleukin-5 and Interferon-gamma in the pathomechanism of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007; 58(Suppl 4): 68.
Czarnobilska E, Jenner B, Kapusta M, Obtulowicz K, Thor P, Spiewak R. Contact allergy to nickel: Patch test score correlates with IL-5, but not with IFN-? nickel-specific secretion by peripheral blood lymphocytes. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009; 16: 37-41.
Czarnobilska E, Thor P, Kaszuba-Zwoinska J, Obtułowicz K. Correlation between patch test results and antigen-specific cytokine secretion in nickel-allergic patients. XXV EAACI Congress, 12-16 June 2006, Vienna, Abstract Book, 293.
Czarnobilska E, Thor P, Kaszuba-Zwoinska J, Słodowska-Hajduk Z, Kapusta M, Stobiecki M, Dyga W, Wsołek K, Obtułowicz K. Response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to nickel stimulation in patients with systemic and contact allergy to nickel. Przegl Lek. 2006; 63: 1276-1280.
Śpiewak R, Brewczyński PZ. Powikłania po stabilizacji płytą metalową złamania kości udowej u chorej z alergią kontaktową na chrom, nikiel i kobalt. [Complications after metal plate stabilization of femoral fracture in a female patient with contact hypersensitivity to chromium, nickel and kobalt]. Pol Tyg Lek. 1993; 48: 651-652.
Thyssen JP, Uter W, McFadden J, Menne T, Śpiewak R, Vigan M, Gimenez-Arnau A, Liden C. The EU Nickel Directive revisited – future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2011; 64: 121-125.
Czarnobilska E, Łach K, Odrzywołek L, Śliwa Ł, Wsołek-Wnęk K, Obtułowicz K, Śpiewak R. Detection of contact allergy: Using more extensive test series increases the diagnostic efficacy of patch tests. Przegl Lek. 2010; 67: 103-106.
Śpiewak R. Alergia kontaktowa – diagnostyka i postępowanie. [Contact allergy – diagnosis and treatment] Alergia Astma Immunologia. 2007; 12: 109-126.
Śpiewak R. Patch testing for contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. Open Allergy J. 2008; 1: 42-51.
Śpiewak R. Wyprysk kontaktowy. [Contact eczema] Post Dermatol Alergol. 2009; 26: 375-377.
Bruze M, Andersen KE, Goossens A ESCD; EECDRG: Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series. Contact Dermatitis 2008; 58: 129-33.
Roul S. Usefulness of the European standard series for patch testing in children. A 3-year single-centre study of 337 patients. Contact Dermatitis. 1999; 40: 232-235.
Bonitsis NG, Tatsioni A, Bassioukas K, Ioannidis JP. Allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis among children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Contact Dermatitis. 2011; 64: 245-257.
Czarnobilska E, Obtułowicz K, Dyga W, Śpiewak R. A half of schoolchildren with ‘ISAAC eczema’ are ill with allergic contact dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03885.x (Epub ahead of print).
Śpiewak R. Allergic contact dermatitis in childhood – a review and meta-analysis. Allergologie 2002; 25: 374-381.
Czarnobilska E, Obtulowicz K, Dyga W, Spiewak R. The most important contact sensitizers in Polish children and adolescents with atopy and chronic recurrent eczema as detected with the extended European Baseline Series. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011; 22: 252-256.
Czarnobilska E, Obtulowicz K, Dyga W, Wsołek-Wnęk K, Spiewak R. Contact hypersensitivity and allergic contact dermatitis among schoolchildren and teenagers with eczema. Contact Dermatitis. 2009; 60: 264-269.
Lee PW, Elsaie ML, Jacob SE. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: common allergens and treatment: a review. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009; 21: 491-498.
Beattie PE, Green C, Lowe G, Lewis-Jones MS. Which children should we patch test? Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007; 32: 6-11.
Clayton TH, Wilkinson SM, Rawcliffe C, Pollock B, Clark SM. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: should pattern of dermatitis determine referral? A retrospective study of 500 children tested between 1995 and 2004 in one UK centre. Br J Dermatol. 2006; 154: 114-117.
Onder M, Adisen E. Patch test results in a Turkish paediatric population. Contact Dermatitis. 2008; 58: 63-65.
Jacob SE, Moennich JN, McKean BA, Zirwas MJ, Taylor JS. Nickel allergy in the United States: a public health issue in need of a ‘nickel directive’. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009; 60: 1067-1069.
Nguyen SH, Dang TP, MacPherson C, Maibach H, Maibach HI. revalence of patch test results from 1970 to 2002 in a multi-centre population in North America (NACDG). Contact Dermatitis. 2008; 58: 101-106.
Pratt MD, Belsito DV, DeLeo VA, Fowler JF Jr, Fransway AF, Maibach HI, Marks JG, Mathias CG, Rietschel RL, Sasseville D, Sherertz EF, Storrs FJ, Taylor JS, Zug K. N Am Contact Dermatitis Group patch-test results, 2001-2002 study period. In: Dermatitis. 2004; 15: 176-183. Erratum in: Dermatitis. 2005; 16: 106.
Smith-Sivertsen T, Dotterud LK, Lund E. Nickel allergy and its relationship with local nickel pollution, ear piercing, and atopic dermatitis: a population-based study from Norway. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999; 40: 726-735.
Jensen CS, Lisby S, Baadsgaard O, Volund A, Menne T. Decrease in nickel sensitization in a Danish schoolgirl population with ears pierced after implementation of a nickel-exposure regulation. Br J Dermatol. 2002; 146: 636-642.
Thyssen J, Menne T, Liden C, White I, White J, Spiewak R, Johansen J. Excessive nickel release from earrings purchased from independent shops and street markets – a field study from Warsaw and London. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03909.x. (Epub ahead of print).
Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Menné T. Contact allergy epidemics and their controls. Contact Dermatitis. 2007; 56: 185-195.
Śpiewak R, Piętowska J. Nikiel – alergen wyjątkowy. Od struktury atomu do regulacji prawnych [Nickel – the unique allergen. From molecular structure to legal regulations]. Alergol Immunol. 2006; 3: 58-62.
Wöhrl S, Jandl T, Stingl G, Kinaciyan T. Cellular phone addiction and allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. Mobile telephone as new source for nickel dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2007; 56: 113.
Sławeta G, Kieć-Świerczyńska M. Alergia kontaktowa u młodzieży kończącej szkołę podstawową. Przegl Dermatol. 1999; 86: 143-147.
Śpiewak R. Atopy and contact hypersensitivity: a reassessment of the relationship using objective measures. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005; 95: 61-65.
Rebandel P, Rudzki E. Jednoczesne uczulenie na nikiel i pallad. [Simultaneous allergy to nickel and palladium] Przegl Dermatol. 1990; 77: 255-258.
Rudzki E, Rebandel P. Contact dermatitis in children. Contact Dermatitis. 1996; 34: 66-67.
Czarnobilska E, Dyga W, Obtułowicz A, Obtułowicz K, Śpiewak R. Contact allergy among Polish children and adolescents with dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2008; 58: 24-25.
Czarnobilska E, Spiewak R, Dyga W, Obtulowicz A, Wsolek-Wnek K, Obtułowicz K. Contact allergy among Polish children and adolescents with dermatitis. Alergia Astma Immunol. 2008; 13: 100-109.
Copeland SD, DeBey S, Hutchison D. Nickel allergies: implications for practice. Dermatol Nurs. 2007; 19: 267-288.
Czarnobilska E, Klimaszewska-Rembiasz M, Gaweł B, Obtułowicz K. Występowanie chorób alergicznych u dzieci w szkołach podstawowych Krakowa i okolic – próba określenia głównych czynników ryzyka. [Prevalence of allergic diseases in primary school children in Cracow and surroundings – risk factors] Przegl Lek. 2002; 59: 422-426.
Kütting B, Brehler R, Traupe H. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: strategies of prevention and risk management. Eur J Dermatol. 2004; 14: 80-85.
Vigan M. Usefulness of the European standard series for patch testing in children. Contact Dermatitis. 2008; 58(Suppl 1): 24.
Mortz CG, Lauritsen JM, Bindslev-Jensen C, Andersen KE. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS). Acta Derm Venereol. 2002; 82: 359-364.
Śpiewak R. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunotherapy. 2011; 3: 979-996.
Śpiewak R. Alergia kontaktowa i alergiczny wyprysk kontaktowy. In: Fal AM (Ed.): Alergia, choroby alergiczne, astma. Med Prak, Kraków. 2011; 371-391.
Śpiewak R. Positive patch tests to palladium are not mere cross-reactivities to nickel but relevant diagnostic findings. Allergy. 2011; 66(Suppl 94): 689-690.
Lerbaek A, Kyvik KO, Menné T, Agner T, Livideanu C, Giordano-Labadie F, Paul C. Retesting with the TRUE Test in a population-based twin cohort with hand eczema – allergies and persistence in an 8-year follow-up study. Contact Dermatitis. 2007; 57: 248-252.
Hausen BM. Evaluation of the main contact allergens in propolis (1995 to 2005). Dermatitis. 2005; 16: 127-129.
Pietowska J, Czarnobilska E, Spiewak R; The most frequent contact sensitizers and atopic diseases among consecutive patients of a Polish patch test clinic. Allergy. 2008; 63(Suppl 88): 320.
Heine G, Schnuch A, Uter W, Worm M. Frequency of contact allergy in German children and adolescents patch tested between 1995 and 2002: results from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology and the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. Contact Dermatitis. 2004; 51: 111-117.
Militello G, Jacob SE, Crawford GH. Allergic contact dermatitis in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2006; 18: 385-390.
Freiman A, Al-Layali A, Sasseville D. Patch testing with thimerosal in a Canadian center: an 11-year experience. Am J Contact Dermat. 2003; 14: 138-143.
Wattanakrai P, Rajatanavin N. Thimerosal allergy and clinical relevance in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007; 90: 1775-1779.
Seidenari S, Giusti F, Pepe P, Mantovani L. Contact sensitization in 1,094 children undergoing patch testing over a 7-year period. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005; 22: 1-5.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top