Impact of spinal pain on daily living activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture
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Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland
Center for Public Health and Health Promotion, Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
Department of General and NeuroRehabilitation, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
Department for Woman Health, Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland
Corresponding author
Dorota Raczkiewicz   

Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24(1):134-140
Introduction and objective:
Postmenopausal women working in agriculture suffer from spinal pain for two overlapping reasons, the first is related to the menopause and the second to the specificity of rural work, which includes lifting heavy objects and changing weather conditions. Spinal pain affects the daily life of women as well as their ability to work. The objective of the study was to analyse the impact of spinal pain on activities of daily life in Polish postmenopausal women performing agricultural work.

Material and Methods:
The study was conducted in 2016 in Poland and included 1,119 post-menopausal women living in rural areas and working in agriculture. The women assessed the severity of spinal pain in 3 sections: neck, thorax and lumbar. Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Low Back Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires were used to assess the impact of spinal pain on daily life activities. Generalized linear models were estimated in statistical analyses.

Postmenopausal women working in agriculture suffered most often from pain in the lumbar spine, less frequently in the neck, and the least in the thoracic. The most common was an isolated pain in only one section of the spine. Spinal pain disturbed the most the women’s rest, standing, lifting objects, while sleep, concentration, and walking the least. The impact of spinal pain on the activities of daily life, on average, was moderate, and increased with greater pain severity, the earlier the age the pain started, the higher the body weight, the lower education level and if there was a co-existing pain in any of the other spine sections. The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities did not depend on age between 45–65, WHR, age at last menstruation, parity, and number and types of births.

The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture was assessed as moderate, on average, and depended mainly on spinal pain-related characteristics, such as severity, age at onset and co-existence of pain in any other spinal sections

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