Factors associated with the frequency of eye examinations among adults in Poland – a nationwide cross-sectional survey, December 2022
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw, Poland
School of Public Health, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Corresponding author
Agnieszka Kamińska   

Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Wojcickiego 1/3, 01-938, Warsaw, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2023;30(2):287-295
Introduction and objective:
The eye examination is a simple and effective intervention that involves a series of tests to evaluate vision and check for eye disease. This study aimed to assess the frequency of eye examinations among adults in Poland and to identify factors associated with the frequency of such examinations.

Material and methods:
The questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in December 2022 on a non-probability quota sample of 1,076 adults in Poland. A computer-assisted web interview technique was used. The study questionnaire included a set of questions on eye health, eye examinations, and socio-demographic characteristics.

Of the 1,076 respondents, 7.4% had an eye examination in the last 30 days, almost one-quarter (24.2%) had an eye examination more than 1 month but not more than 12 months ago, 13.9% had an eye examination in the last 1–2 years, and 24.1% had an eye examination more than 2 years ago but not more than 3 years ago. Among the respondents, 7.1% declared that they had never had an eye examination. Of the 12 different factors analyzed in this study, wearing spectacles or lenses and self-reported level of knowledge on eye diseases were the only factors significantly associated with higher odds of eye examinations in the last 12 months or 2 years. There was no significant impact of gender, educational level, place of residence, health status, or economic status (p>0.05) on the frequency of eye examinations, neither in the last 12 months nor in the last 2–3 years.

The study showed that a significant percentage of adults in Poland do not have regular eye examinations. There was a lack of socio-economic differences (including place of residence and economic status) in the frequency of eye examinations. There is an urgent need for health education on preventive eye examinations and eye care among adults in Poland.

Enoch J, McDonald L, Jones L, et al. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019;137(11):1317–1320.
Desrosiers J, Wanet-Defalque MC, Témisjian K, et al. Participation in daily activities and social roles of older adults with visual impairment. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;31(15):1227–1234.
World Health Organization. World report on vision. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.
Alvarez-Peregrina C, Sánchez-Tena MÁ, Andreu-Vázquez C, et al. Visual Health and Academic Performance in School-Aged Children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(7):2346.
Mayo Clinic. Eye examination. Accesses December 27, 2022. Available online:
Yadav S, Tandon R. Comprehensive eye examinationination: what does it mean? Community Eye Health. 2019;32(107):S1-S4.
Keel S, Müller A, Block S, et al. Keeping an eye on eye care: monitoring progress towards effective coverage. Lancet GlobHealth. 2021;9(10):e1460-e1464.
Zhang J, Tuo J, Wang Z, et al. Pathogenesis of Common Ocular Diseases. J Ophthalmol. 2015;2015:734527.
Ho KC, Stapleton F, Wiles L, et al. Systematic review of the appropriateness of eye care delivery in eye care practice. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019;19(1):646.
Sloot F, Hoeve HL, de Kroon ML, et al. Inventory of current EU paediatric vision and hearing screening programmes. J Med Screen. 2015;22(2):55–64.
Atowa UC, Wajuihian SO, Hansraj R. A review of paediatric vision screening protocols and guidelines. Int J Ophthalmol. 2019;12(7):1194–1201.
Klein R, Klein BE. The prevalence of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in aging: current estimates. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(14):ORSF5–ORSF13.
Merle BMJ, Moreau G, Ozguler A, et al. Unhealthy behaviours and risk of visual impairment: The CONSTANCES population-based cohort. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):6569.
American Academy of Ophthalmology. Eye Examination and Vision Testing Basics. Accesses December 27, 2022. Available online:
Medical Advisory Secretariat. Routine eye examinationinations for persons 20–64 years of age: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2006;6(15):1–81.
Republic of Poland. Act of 27 June 1997 on the occupational medicine service [Polish]. Accesses December 27, 2022. Available online:
Pas-Wyroślak A, Siedlecka J, Wyroślak D, et al. Znaczenie stanu narządu wzroku dla kierowcy. Med Pr. 2013;64(3):419–425.
Kim TJ, Vonneilich N, Lüdecke D, et al. Income, financial barriers to health care and public health expenditure: A multilevel analysis of 28 countries. Soc Sci Med. 2017;176:158–165.
Nationwide Research Panel Ariadna. About Us. Accesses December 27, 2022. Available online:
Statistics Poland. Demographic Yearbook of Poland 2022. Accesses December 27, 2022. Available online:
Żarnowski A, Jankowski M, Gujski M. Use of Mobile Apps and Wearables to Monitor Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Adults in Poland. Med Sci Monit. 2022;28:e937948.
Furman FM, Zgliczyński WS, Jankowski M, et al. The State of Vaccine Confidence in Poland: A 2019 Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(12):4565.
Partka O, Wysocki MJ. Epidemiologia chorób narządu wzroku oraz infrastruktura okulistyki w Polsce. Epidemiological Rev. 2015; 69(4): 905–908.
Chou R, Dana T, Bougatsos C. Screening older adults for impaired visual acuity: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(1):44–58, W11–20.
O’Donnell EM, Lelli GJ, Bhidya S, et al. The Growth Of Private Equity Investment In Health Care: Perspectives From Ophthalmology. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020;39(6):1026–1031.
Mularczyk-Tomczewska P, Żarnowski A, Gujski M, et al. Preventive Health Screening during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey among 102,928 Internet Users in Poland. J Clin Med. 2022;11(12):3423.
Ehrlich JR, Stagg BC, Andrews C, et al. Vision Impairment and Receipt of Eye Care Among Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019;137(2):146–158.
Kirag N, Temel AB. The effect of an eye health promotion program on the health protective behaviors of primary school students. J Educ Health Promot. 2018;7:37.
Fernandez DM, Larson JL, Zikmund-Fisher BJ. Associations between health literacy and preventive health behaviors among older adults: findings from the health and retirement study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:596.
Sorensen K, Van den Broucke S, Fullam J, et al. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:80.
Gujski M, Raciborski F, Jankowski M, et al. Epidemiological Analysis of the First 1389 Cases of COVID-19 in Poland: A Preliminary Report. Med Sci Monit. 2020;26:e924702.
Lundeen EA, Wittenborn J, Benoit SR, et al. Disparities in Receipt of Eye Examinations Among Medicare Part B Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries with Diabetes – United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(45):1020–1023.
Sloan FA, Yashkin AP, Chen Y. Gaps in receipt of regular eye examinationinations among medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with diabetes or chronic eye diseases. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(12):2452–60.
Tóth G, Szabó D, Sándor GL, et al. Rural–urban disparities in the prevalence of diabetes and diabetic eye complications in Hungary. Spektrum Augenheilkd. 2021;35:54–60.
Kik J, Nordmann M, Cainap S, et al. Implementation of paediatric vision screening in urban and rural areas in Cluj County, Romania. Int J Equity Health. 2021;20(1):256.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top