Factors associated with the frequency of eye examinationinations among adults in Poland – a nationwide cross-sectional survey, December 2022
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Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw, Poland
School of Public Health, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Agnieszka Kamińska   

Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Wojcickiego 1/3, 01-938, Warsaw, Poland
Introduction and objective:
The eye examination is a simple and effective intervention that involves a series of tests to evaluate vision and check for eye disease. This study aimed to assess the frequency of eye examinations among adults in Poland and to identify factors associated with the frequency of such examinations.

Material and methods:
The questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in December 2022 on a non-probability quota sample of 1,076 adults in Poland. A computer-assisted web interview technique was used. The study questionnaire included a set of questions on eye health, eye examinations, and socio-demographic characteristics.

Of the 1,076 respondents, 7.4% had an eye examination in the last 30 days, almost one-quarter (24.2%) had an eye examination more than 1 month but not more than 12 months ago, 13.9% had an eye examination in the last 1–2 years, and 24.1% had an eye examination more than 2 years ago but not more than 3 years ago. Among the respondents, 7.1% declared that they had never had an eye examination. Of the 12 different factors analyzed in this study, wearing spectacles or lenses and self-reported level of knowledge on eye diseases were the only factors significantly associated with higher odds of eye examinations in the last 12 months or 2 years. There was no significant impact of gender, educational level, place of residence, health status, or economic status (p>0.05) on the frequency of eye examinations, neither in the last 12 months nor in the last 2–3 years.

The study showed that a significant percentage of adults in Poland do not have regular eye examinations. There was a lack of socio-economic differences (including place of residence and economic status) in the frequency of eye examinations. There is an urgent need for health education on preventive eye examinations and eye care among adults in Poland.

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