Assessment of knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors by postal survey in residents of Małopolska Voivodeship. Małopolska CArdiovascular PReventive Intervention Study (M-CAPRI)
More details
Hide details
Department of Diagnostics, John Paul II Hospital, Kraków, Poland
Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, Kraków, Poland
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland
Department of Interventional Cardiology, Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, Kraków, Poland
Instytute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland
Corresponding author
Anna Waśniowska   

Department of Diagnostics, John Paul II Hospital, Kraków, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24(2):201-206
Education is a key tool in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Education programmes require monitoring of their effectiveness.

1) to introduce postal screening for the assessment of knowledge on CVD risk factors (RFs) for the Polish population, 2) to assess this knowledge in adult residents of Małopolska Voivodeship, and 3) to assess whether knowledge on RFs is related to age, gender, place of residence, level of education and family history of CVD.

Material and Methods:
Anonymous questionnaires were posted to a random sample of 5,000 residents of Małopolska Voivodeship in Poland. Results were presented as proportions of participants who listed RFs correctly. A series of multiple logistic regression models was used to assess the associations of knowledge on RFs with the potential determinants.

1,126 completed questionnaires were returned. Over 35% of respondents could not list a single RF and 14 % listed only 1–2 RFs. About 40% named 3–5 and only 12% listed 6 or more RFs. About a half of the respondents listed incorrectly from 1–8 characteristics as being associated with higher risk of CVD. In the multivariate analysis, knowledge on RFs was not significantly associated with age. Level of education was the strongest determinant of knowledge. Male rural and small town residents had less knowledge, whereas women with a family history of CVD had more knowledge on some CVD RFs.

Using a postal questionnaire for the assessment of knowledge of CVD RFs in the population of Małopolska Voivodeship appeared to have serious limitations due to low participation in the study. Despite this, the results of the study indicate that knowledge on CVD RFs is insufficient. Female gender and higher education were related to more prevalent knowledge on RFs. Family history of CVD was related to better knowledge in women only. Male residents of rural areas and small towns had slightly less knowledge on CVD RFs

Rocznik demograficzny 2012. Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Warszawa 2012 (in Polish).
Góźdź S, Krzyżak M, Maślach D, Wróbel M, Bielska-Lasota M. Trends of Premature Mortality in Świętokrzyskie Province (Poland), years 2002–2010. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2013; 64(3): 205–210 (in Polish).
Krzyżak M, Maślach D,Skrodzka M, Florczyk K, Szpak A, Pędziński B et al. Joinpoint Regression Analysis of Potential Years of Life Lost due to Main Causes of Death in Poland, Years 2002–2011. SLGR. 2013; 35(48): 157–167.
Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren WMM, et al. The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J. 2012; 33(13): 1635–1701.
Tunstall-Pedoe H, Kuulasmaa K, Mahonen M, Tolonen H, Ruokokoski E, Amouyel P for the WHO MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Project. Contribution of trends in survival and coronary-event rates to changes in coronary heart disease mortality: 10-year results from 37 WHO MONICA Project populations. Lancet. 1999; 353 (9164): 1547–57.
Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEAR study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004; 364 (9438): 937–952.
Bandosz P, O’Flaherty M, Drygas W, Rutkowski M, Koziarek J, Wyrzykowski B, et al. Decline in mortality from coronary heart disease in Poland after socioeconomic transformation: modelling study. BMJ (access: 2014.01.11).
Rose G. The Strategies of Preventive Medicine. Oxford University Press, 1992.
Pająk A, Kozela M, Jankowski P. Zapobieganie chorobom układu krążenia w świetle nowych wytycznych europejskich towarzystw naukowych. Gdzie zlokalizować programy prewencji? Kardiol Dypl. 2012; 11(10): 9–16 (in Polish).
Carrington MJ, Retegan C, Johnston CI, Jennings GL, Stewart S. Cholesterol complacency in Australia: time to revisit the basics of cardiovascular disease prevention. J Clin Nurs. 2009; 18(5): 678–686.
Chapple A, Sibbald B, Rogers A, Roland M. Citizens’ expectations and likely use of a NHS Walk-in Centre: results of a survey and qualitative methods of research. Health Expect. 2001; 4(1): 38–47.
Chew KK, Bremner A, Stuckey B, Earle C, Jamrozik K. Is the relationship between cigarette smoking and male erectile dysfunction independent of cardiovascular disease? Findings from a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study. J Sex Med. 2009; 6(1): 222–231.
Stanton WR, Moffatt J, Clavarino A. Community Perceptions of Adequate Levels and Reasons for Skin Protection. Behav Med. 2005; 31(1): 5–15.
Brogger J, Bakke P, Eide GE, Gulsvik A. Comparison of Telephone and Postal Survey Modes on Respiratory Symptoms and Risk Factors. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 155(6): 572–576.
Sutherland HJ, Beaton M, Mazer R, Kriukov V, Boyd NF. A randomized trial of the total design method for the postal follow-up of women in a cancer prevention trial. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1996; 5(3): 165–168.
Jinks C, Ong BN, Croft P. Postal surveys in primary care: the hidden burden. Health Expect. 2001; 4(4): 253–259.
Smyth RMD, Duley L, Jacoby A, Elbourne D. Women’s experiences of Participating in the Magpie Trial: A postal Survey in the United Kingdom. Birth. 2009; 36(3): 220–229.
Pająk A, Szafraniec K, Janion M, Szpak A, Wizner B, Wolfshaut-Wolak R, et al. for a POLKARD study. The impact of the Polish national Programme of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention on the quality of primary cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Kardiol Pol. 2010; 68(12): 1332–1340.
Piwońska A, Piotrowski W, Broda G. Knowledge about arterial hypertension in the Polish population: the WOBASZ study. Kardiol Pol. 2012; 70(2): 140–146.
Bielecki W, Kaczmarczyk-Chałas K, Piwońska A, Kozakiewicz K, Głuszek J, Biela U, et al. Świadomość zasad zapobiegania chorobom układu krążenia w populacji dorosłych mieszkańców Polski. Wyniki programu WOBASZ. Kardiol Pol. 2005; 63(6 Suppl 4): 677–681.
Hamner J, Wilder B. Knowledge and risk of cardiovascular disease in rural Alabama women. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2008; 20(6): 333–338.
Broda G, Cieśliński A, Rywik S, Adamus J, Rynkiewicz A. Ogólnopolski program Prewencji Choroby Wieńcowej -POLSCREEN. Zdefiniiowanie problemu, cele i metodyka badania. In: Cieśliński A, Pająk A, Podolec P, Rynkiewicz A (eds.). Ogólnopolski Program Prewencji Choroby Wieńcowej POLSCREEN. Termedia; Poznań 2006. p.(27)33–34 (in Polish).
Lynch EB, Liu K, Kiefe CI, Greenland P. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Knowledge in Young Adults and 10-year Change in Risk Factors. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 164(12):1171–1179.
Pająk A, Podolec P, Kopeć G, Dudek D, Zdrojewski T, Drygas W, et al. Polish Forum for Prevention Guidelines on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. Kardiol Pol. 2009; 67(9): 1048–1051.
Kopeć G, Sobień B, Podolec M, Dziedzic H, Zarzecka J, Loster B, et al. Knowledge of a patient-dependant phase of acute myocardial infarction in Polish adults: the role of physician’s advice. Eur J Public Health. 2011; 21(5): 603–608.
Avis NE, McKinlay JB, Smith KW. Is Cardiovascular Risk Factor Knowledge Sufficient to Influence Behavior? Am J Prev Med. 1990; 6(3): 137–144.
Potvin L, Richard L, Edwards AC. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the Canadian population: relationships with indicators of socioeconomic status. CMAJ. 2000; 162(9 Suppl): 5–11.
Health inequalities in the EU — Final report of a consortium. Consortium lead: Sir Michael Marmot. European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers, European Union 2013.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top