The virulence of Candida albicans is conditioned by several virulence factors, one of which is the formation of biofilm which reduces the sensitivity of the yeast to conventional antimycotics. This study determines the antifungal and antibiofilm activity of five essential oils (EOs) of the Lamiaceae family: Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum vulgare, and Hyssopus officinalis.

Material and methods:
In the preliminary research, the antifungal effect of eachof the EOs was tested in the concentration range of 200–0.4 mg/mL on planktonic Candida albicans (C. albicans) cells. A total of 13 C. albicans clinical isolates and one reference strain were evaluated on biofilm formation.

Nine isolates (69.2%) showed weak biofilm production and four strains (30.8%) were detected as moderate biofilm producers. The EOs of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare were seen as effective antifungal agents on planktonic cells with the MIC 0.4 mg/mL. The highest average MIC values were recorded in Salvia officinalis EO (24.0 and 14.8 mg/mL). All isolates were used to determine EOs efficacy on the inhibition of adherence phase and biofilm formation. The biofilm production of C. albicans after exposition by EOs was quantitatively examined by crystal violet dye.

The most effective for adherence phase and biofilm formation were EOs of Origanum vulgare (0.1 mg/mL and 0.3 mg/mL) and Thymus vulgaris (0.1 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL). The obtained results show that EOs of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare are potential agents for antifungal treatment or prophylaxis by reducing the resistance of pathogen.

Funding source This research was financial supported by IGA UVLF 05/2020 „In vitro“ determination of proapoptotic, antibiofilm and antioxidant activity of selected essential oils from plants of the Lamiaceae family“ and by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-15-0377.
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