Trichinellosis in Slovakia – epidemiological situation in humans and animals (2009–2018)
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Institute of Parasitology SAS, Košice, Slovak Republic
Veterinary and Food Institute, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Regional Authority of Public Health, Banská Bystrica, Slovak Republic
Faculty of Medicine, P. J. Šafárik University, Košice, Slovak Republic
Daniela Antolová   

Institute of Parasitology SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01, Košice, Slovak Republic
Ethical standards. The study was performed in accordance with the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2013, and was approved by the Ethics Committee of Institute of Parasitology of SAS (No. EK 04/2015). All respondents or their legal representatives agreed with the survey and signed the informed consent. No identifying data are presented in the paper.
Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasitic nematodes with almost worldwide distribution. The infection can be transmitted through the foodborne route and can cause serious health problems in infected human patients. It is also an economically important issue due to the high financial cost connected with prevention of the disease.

The study aimed to discover trends in the epidemiological situation in people and animals in Slovakia in 2009–2018.

Material and methods:
Data on human trichinellosis originated from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic, and data on Trichinella infection in animals from the State Veterinary and Food Administration of the Slovak Republic. A seroepidemiological study on 655 voluntary respondents was performed.

Altogether, 29 human cases were reported between 2009–2018, with a maximum of 13 cases in 2011. Males were affected more often (19 cases) than females (10 cases); the average age of patients was 45.1 years. Antibodies to Trichinellawere detected in two sera (0.3%): in a serum from one hunter and one veterinarian. In the monitored period, the average prevalence of Trichinella infection was 9.6% in 2,295 red foxes, and 0.04% in 165,643 wild boars. Three (1.7%) of 178 surveyed brown bears were positive. Within the compulsory monitoring of trichinellosis in domestic pigs, none from a total of 1,632,688 pigs were positive. The presence of three species, Trichinellabritovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, was documented, with T. britovi representing 93.9% of identified isolates.

The study indicates that the prevalence of Trichinella infection has not changed considerably with time in Slovakia, and the risk of human infection outbreaks is connected mainly with the consumption of wild boar meat.

The study was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract No. APVV-15–0114, and by the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA, Project No. 1/0043/19.
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