RESEARCH PAPER
Stress and occupational burnout in a population of Polish doctors – Organizational-professional and non-professional-social predictors
 
More details
Hide details
1
Division of Health Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
2
Institute of Applied Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Antoni Wontorczyk   

Jagiellonian University, Institute of Applied Psychology
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction and objective:
Numerous studies have found that doctors are exposed to stress and burnout at work. In consequence, these processes lead to a decrease in the quality of life. The study aimed to determine whether professional burnout, understood as a cognitive existential process, is related to stress at work and if any of the four dimensions of burnout are its predictor. The study also analyzed relations between organizational-professional and non-professional-social factors and burnout and stress at work.

Material and methods:
318 doctors (210 women, 108 men), aged 27 – 8, participated in the study. Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ) was used to measure burnout, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) to measure the variable describing the current level of stress.

Results:
Occupational burnout is related to stress. Two of its symptoms: exhaustion and lack of a sense of professional effectiveness, are important predictors for the sense of stress experienced by the examined group of doctors. The individuals who are in a partner relationship (but not marriage) experienced a stronger sense of non-professional effectiveness than those who were single. Being in an informal relationship is related to the level of stress and lack of a sense of professional effectiveness. The level of stress, as well as all burnout indicators, are connected with the function of a team leader and having passion. The frequency of taking leave and using social networks is related to the level of stress and burnout.

Conclusions:
Problems related to burnout in doctors, and therefore people professionally involved in helping and treating, must not be underestimated, as evidenced by the results of the presented study Professional burnout of doctors leads to somatic and psychological problems. Doctors suffering from occupational burnout need support and psychological assistance the same as any other professional group.

 
REFERENCES (91)
1.
Walkiewicz M, Zalewski B. Psychospołeczny portret lekarza w Polsce [Psychosocial profile of Polish doctors]. Medycyna po dyplomie 2017. https: //www.researchgate.Net/publicati.... Polish.
 
2.
Walkiewicz M, Sowińska K, Tartas M. Wypalenie zawodowe – przegląd literatury. Prz Lek. 2014; 71(5): 263–269.
 
3.
Arora M, Asha S, Chinnappa J, Diwan AD. Burnout in emergency medicine physicians. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 2013; 25: 491–495. http//doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.1213....
 
4.
Pantenburg B, Luppa M, König HH, Riedel-Heller SG. Burnout among young physicians and its association with physicians’ wishes toleave: results of a survey in Saxony, Germany. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2016; 11: 2. http//doi.org/10.1186/s12995-016-009....
 
5.
Eelen S, Bauwens S, Baillon C, Distelmans W, Jacobs E, Verzelen A. The prevalence of burnout among oncology professionals:oncologists are at risk of developing burnout. Psycho-Oncology. 2014; 23: 1415–1422. http//doi.org/10.1002/pon.3579.
 
6.
Petitta L, Jiang L, Härtel, Ch EJ. Emotional contagion and burnout among nurses and doctors: Do joy and anger from different sources of stakeholders matter? Stress and Health. J Inter Soc Invest Stress. 2017; 33(4): 358–369.
 
7.
Xinyu Z, Juncai P, Xiaoni Z, Dan Z, Dinghong Y, Lining Y, et al. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. Neurology. 2017; 88(18): 1727–1735.
 
8.
Maslach Ch, Leiter M. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry. 2016; 15(2): 103–111.
 
9.
Lin F, Winsome SJ, McVeigh C. Burnout among hospital nurses in China. J Nurs Manag. 2009; 17: 294–301. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
 
10.
Greenglass ER, Burke RJ, Fiksenbaum L. Worlkoad and burnout in nurses. J Community. Appl Soc Psychol. 2001; 11: 211–215, https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.6....
 
11.
Sasaki M, Kitaoka-Higashiguchi K, Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H. Relationship between stress coping and burnout in Japanese hospital nurses. J Nurs Manag. 2009; 17: 359–365. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
 
12.
Hsu HY, Chen SH, Yu HY, Lou JH. Job stress, achievement motivation and occupational burnout among male nurses. J Adv Nurs. 2010; 66: 1592–1601. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
 
13.
Tunc T, Kutanis RO. Role conflict, role ambiguity and burnout in nurses and physicians of university hospital in Turkey. Nurs Health Sci. 2009; 11: 410–416. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442....
 
14.
Kowalski C, Ommen O, Driller E, Erstmann E, Wirtz MA, et al. Burnout in nurses – the relationship between social capital in hospitals and emotional exhaustion. J Clin Nurs. 2009; 19: 1654–1663. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
 
15.
Shirom A, Nirel N, Vinokur AD. Work hours and caseload as predictors of physician burnout: the mediating effects by perceived workload and by autonomy. Appl Psychol. 2010; 59: 539–565. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464....
 
16.
Alacacioglu A, Yavuzsen T, Dirioz M, Oztop I, Yilmaz U. Burnout in nurses and physicians working a tan oncology department. Psychooncology. 2009; 18: 543–548.
 
17.
Ratanawongsa M, Roter D, Beach MC, Laird SL, Larson SM, et al. Physician burnout and patient-physician communication during primary care encounters. J Gen Intern Med. 2008; 23: 1581–1588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606....
 
18.
Hanrahan NP, Aiken LH, Mc Claine L, Hanlon AL. Ralationship between psychiatric nurse work environments and nurse burnout in acute care in generale hospitals. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010; 31: 198–207. https://doi.org/10.3109/016128....
 
19.
Ozyurt A, Hayran O, Sur H. Predictors of burnout and job satisfaction among Turkish physicians. QJM. 2006; 99: 161–169. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/....
 
20.
Panagopoulu E, Montgomery A, Benos A. Burnout in internal medicine physicians: differences between residents and specialists. Eur J Intern Med. 2006; 17: 195–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim....
 
21.
Bruce SM, Conaglen HM, Conaglen JV. Burnout in physicians: a case for peer – support. Intern Med. J. 2005; 35: 272–278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1445....
 
22.
Peltzer K, Mashego TA, Mabeba M. Short Communication: Occupational stress and burnout among South African medical pracitioners. Stress Health. 2003; 19: 275–280. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.98....
 
23.
McManus IC, Winder BC, Gordon D. The causal links between stress and burnout in a longitudinal study of UK doktors. Lancet. 2002; 359: 2089–2090.
 
24.
Kovatcs M, Kovatsc E, Hegedus K. Emotion work and burnout: cross sectional study of nurses and physicians in Hungary. Croat Med J. 2010; 51: 432–442. https: doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2010.51.43....
 
25.
Lee H, Song R, Cho Y, Lee GZ, Daly B, et al. Comprehensive model for predicting burnout in Korean nurses. J Adv Nurs. 2003; 45: 534–545.
 
26.
Freeborn DK. Satisfaction commitment and psychological well-being among HMO physicians. West J Med. 2001; 174: 13–18.
 
27.
Dewa CS, Jacobs P, Thanh NX, Loong D. An estimate of the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada. BMC Health Services Research. 2014; 14: 254. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6....
 
28.
Moreno-Jimenez B, Rodriguez-Carvajal R, Hernandez EG, Benadero EM. Terminal versus non-terminal care in physician burnout: the role of decision – taking processes and attitudes to death. Salud Ment. 2008; 31: 93–101.
 
29.
Dudek B, Waszkowska M, Merecz D, Hanke W. Ochrona zdrowia pracowników przed skutkami stresu zawodowego. Łódź: Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine; 2004.
 
30.
Sęk H. Poznawcze i kompetencyjne uwarunkowania wypalenia w pracy z chorymi. Post Psych Neurol. 2005; 14(2): 93–98.
 
31.
Weston G, Zilanawala A, Webb E, Carvalho LA, McMunn A. Long work hours, weekend working and depressive symptoms in men and women: findings from a UK population-based study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019; 0: 465–474. doi: 10.1136/jech-2018-211309.
 
32.
Czabak-Garbacz E, Stasiuk W, Zakrocka IN, Cygan B, Furtak I. Stres zawodowy w pracy lekarzy w szpitalu i w przychodni. Zdr Publ. 2012; 122(3): 298–301.
 
33.
Krysiak L. [Polish health service in the tail of Europe]. Gaz Lek. 2015; 3. Polish.
 
34.
Mickiewicz I, Krajewska-Kułak E, Kędziora-Kornatowska K, Muszyńska-Rosłan K. [Selected Problems Related to Working in Oncology Departments and Hospices]. Prace Poglądowe. Piel Zdr Publ. 2011; 1(4): 343–352, ISNN 2082-9876. Polish.
 
35.
Ostrowski MT. [Positive and negative consequences of having more than one job for doctors’ health]. Pol Forum Psychol. 2009; 14(1): 78–89. Polish.
 
36.
Ogńska-Bulik N. [Professional stress in social services professions]. Warszawa: Difin; 2006, Polish.
 
37.
Freudenberger HJ. Staff burnout. J Soc Issues. 1974; 30(1): 159–165.
 
38.
Pines AM. Couple burnout: Causes and Cures. New York: Routledge. 1996.
 
39.
Sęk H. Uwarunkowania i mechanizmy wypalenia zawodowego w modelu społecznej psychologii poznawczej. W: H. Sęk (red.), Wypalenie zawodowe. Przyczyny, mechanizmy, zapobieganie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN; 2000: 83–112.
 
40.
Tucholska S. Wypalenie zawodowe u nauczycieli. Psychologiczna analiza zjawiska i jego osobowościowych uwarunkowań. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. 2009.
 
41.
Santinello M. LBQ Link Burnout Questionnaire. Manuale. Firenze: Giunti O.S. Organizzazioni Speciali. 2008.
 
42.
Maslach C. Engagement research: Some thoughts from a burnout perspective. Eur J Work Organizational Psychol. 2011; 20: 47–52.
 
43.
Juczyński Z, Ogińska-Bulik N. Skala Odczuwanego Stresu – PSS-10. Narzędzia pomiaru stresu i radzenia sobie ze stresem. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego, 2009; Polish.
 
44.
Maslach Ch, Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001; 52: 397–422.
 
45.
Lin F, St John W, McVeigh C: Burnout among hospital nurses in China. J Nurs Manag. 2009: 17; 294–301.
 
46.
Hsu HY1, Chen SH, Yu HY, Lou JH. Job stress, achievement motivation and occupational burnout among male nurses. J Adv Nurs. 2010; 66(7): 1592–601. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05323.x.
 
47.
Shirom A, Nirel N, Vinokur AD. Work hours and caseload as predictors of physician burnout: the mediating effects by perceived workload and by autonomy. Appl Psychol. 2010; 59: 539–565. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00411.x.
 
48.
Kristensen TS, Borritz M, Villadsen E, Christensen KB. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for assessment of burnout. Work & Stress. 2007; 19(3): 192–207. doi: 10.1080/02678370500297720.
 
49.
Kushnir T, Cohen AH: Job structure and burnout among primary care paediatricians. Work. 2006; 27: 67–74.
 
50.
Freeborn DK. Satisfaction, commitment and psychological well-being among HMO physicians. West J Med. 2001; 174: 13–18.
 
51.
Kristensen TS, Borritz M, Villadsen E, Christensen KB. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work & Stress. 2005; 19(3): 192–207.
 
52.
Demerouti E, Mostert K, Bakker AB. Burnout and work engagement: a thorough investigation of the independency of both constructs. J Occup Health Psychol. 2010; 15: 209–222. doi: 10.1037/a0019408.
 
53.
Rybakowski J, Pużyński S, Wciórka J. Podstawy psychiatrii. Tom 1. Elsevier Urban & Partner, Wrocław, 2010.
 
54.
Maslach Ch, Leiter M. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry. 2016; 15(2): 103–111. doi: 10.1002/wps.20311.
 
55.
Lloyd C, King R, Chenoweth L. Social work, stress and burnout: A review. J Mental Health. 2002; 11(3); 255–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0963....
 
56.
Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Vardakou I, Kantas A. The convergent validity of two burnout instruments: a multitrait-multimethod analysis. Eur J Psychol Assess. 2003; 19: 12–23.
 
57.
Evans S, Huxley P, Gately C, Webber M, Mears A, Pajak S, at all. Mental health, burnout and job satisfaction among mental health social workers in England and Wales. B J Psychiatry. 2006; 188: 75–80. doi: 10.1192/bjp.188.1.75.
 
58.
Mańkowska B. Podmiotowe i organizacyjne wyznaczniki wypalenia zawodowego pracowników pomocy społecznej. Prz Psychol. 2015; 58(1): 83–97.
 
59.
Walkiewicz M, Sowińska K, Taras M. Wypalenie zawodowe wśród personelu medycznego – przegląd literatury. Przegl Lek. 2014; 71(5): 263–269.
 
60.
Biela A. European Questionnaire for Job Analysis, Berlin. Peter Lang Gmbh. 2018.
 
61.
Sasaki M, Kitaoka-Higashiguchi K, Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H. Relationship between stress coping and burnout in Japanese hospital nurses. J Nurs Manag. 2009; 17: 359–365. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00960.x.
 
62.
Wen J, Cheng Y, Hu X, Yuan P, Hao T, Shi. Workload, burnout, and medical mistakes among physicians in China: A crosssectional study. Biosci Trends. 2016; 1: 27–33. doi: 10.5582/bst.2015.01175.
 
63.
Wu Liu L, Wang Y, Gao F, Zhao X, Wang. Factors associated with burnout among Chinese hospital doctors: a crosssectional study. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 1–12. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-786.
 
64.
Azam K, Khan A, Alam MT. Causes and Adverse Impact of Physician Burnout: A Systematic Review. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2017; 27(8): 495–501. doi: 2678.
 
65.
Banerjee A. Physician Heal Thyself: Perspectives on Burnout among Doctors. Perspectives Med Res. 2019; 7(1): 3–9.
 
66.
Garcia HA, McGeary CA, Finley EP, Ketchum NS, McGeary D, Peterson. Burnout among psychiatrists in the Veterans Health Administration. Burn Res. 2015; 4: 108–14.
 
67.
Pantenburg B, Luppa M, König H, Riedel-Heller S. Burnout among young physicians and its association with physicians’ wishes to leave: results of a survey in Saxony, Germany. J Occup Med Tox. 2016; 11: 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s12995-016-0091-z.
 
68.
Zubairi AJ, Noordin S. Factors associated with burnout among residents in a developing country. Ann Med Surg. 2016; 6: 60–63. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2016.01.090.
 
69.
Kimo Takayesu J, Ramoska EA, Clark T, Hansoti B, Dougherty J, Freeman W. Factors associated with burnout during emergency medicine residency. Acad Emerg Med. 2014; 9: 1031–1035. doi: 10.1111/acem.12464.
 
70.
Langade D, Modi PD, Sidhwa YF, et al. Burnout Syndrome Among Medical Practitioners Across India: A Questionnaire-Based Survey. Cureus. 2016; 8(9): e771. doi 10.7759/cureus.771.
 
71.
Lo D, Wu F, Chan M, Chu R, Li D. A systematic review of burnout among doctors in China: a cultural perspective. Asia Pac Fam Med. 2018; 17: 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12930....
 
72.
Al-Turki HA, Al-Turki RA, Al-Dardas HA, Al-Gazol MR, Al-Maghrabi GH. et al: Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia. Ann Afr Med. 2010; 9; 226–229. doi: 10.4103/1596-3519.70960.
 
73.
Meeusen V, Van Dam K, Brown-Mahoney C, Van Zendert A, Knapa H. Burnout, psychosomatic symptoms and job satysfaction among Dutch anaesthetists: a survey. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010; 54: 616–621. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399....
 
74.
Wang Z, Xie Z, Dai J, et al. Physician burnout and its associated factors: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai. J Occup Health. 2014; 56: 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.13....
 
75.
Siu C, Yuen S, Cheung A. Burnout among public doctors in Hong Kong: cross-sectional survey. Hong Kong Med J. 2012; 3: 186–92.
 
76.
Howard M. The incidence of burnout or compassion fatigue in medical dosimetrists as a function of various stress and psychologic factors. Med Dosimetry. 2013; 1: 88–94. doi: 10.1016/j.meddos.2012.07.006.
 
77.
Yao S, Yu H, Ai Y, Song P, Meng S, Li W. Job-related burnout and the relationship to quality of life among Chinese medical college staff. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2015; 1: 27–34. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2013.859120.
 
78.
Lamothe M, Boujut E, Zenasni F, Sultan S. To be or not to be empathic: the combined role of empathic concern and perspective taking in understanding burnout in general practice. BMC Family Prcat 2014; 1: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2....
 
79.
Jalili M, Roodsari GS, Nia A. Burnout and associated factors among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners. Iranian J Pub Health. 2013; 9: 1034.
 
80.
Saijo Y, Chiba S, Yoshioka E, Kawanishi Y, Nakagi Y, Itoh T. Effects of work burden, job strain and support on depressive symptoms and burnout among Japanese physicians. Int J Occup Med Env Health. 2014; 6: 980–992. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13382....
 
81.
Al-Dubai SA, Rampal KG. Prevalence and associated factors of burnout among doctors in Yemen. J Occup Health. 2010; 52: 58–65. https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.O8....
 
82.
Kapucu SS, Akkus Y, Akdemir N, Karacan Y: The burnout and exhaustion levels of nurses working in haemodialysis units. J Ren Care. 2009; 35: 134–140. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-6686.2009.00108.x.
 
83.
Vedsted P, Sokolowski I, Olesen F. Open access to general practice was associated with burnout among general practitioners. Int J Family Med. 2013; 1–6. doi: 10.1155/2013/383602.
 
84.
Wang Liu L, Wang J, Wang L. Work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese doctors: the mediating role of psychological capital. J Occup Health. 2012; 54: 232–240.
 
85.
Heiligers PJM, Hingstman L. Career preferences and the work-family balance in medicine: gender differences among medical specialists. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 50: 1235–1246.
 
86.
Salanova M, Llorens S: Current state of research on burnout and future challenges. Papeles del psicólogo. 2008; 29: 59–67.
 
87.
Melamed S, Kushnir T, Shirom A: Burnout and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Behav Med. 1992; 18: 53–60. 10.1080/08964289.1992.9935172.
 
88.
Danhof-Pont M, van Veen T, Zitman FG. Biomarkers in burnout: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2010; 70(6): 505–524. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.10.012.
 
89.
Lemaire JB, Wallace JE, Burnout among doctors. BMJ. 2017; 358: j3360. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j3... 011; 70: 50524.
 
90.
Henkens K, Leenders M. Burnout and older workers’ intention to retire. Int J Manpow. 2010; 31(3): 306–321. doi: 10.1108/01437721011050594.
 
91.
Dewa C S, Loong D, Bonato S, Thanh N X, Jacobs P. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014; 14: 325. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-325.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966