Serological and molecular evidence of hepadnavirus infection in swine
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Laboratory of Development Technological in Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, RJ, Brazil
Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, RJ, Brazil
Departament of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Federal Rural University of Rio De Janeiro, UFRRJ, RJ, Brazil
Departament of Animal Production, Institute of Animal Science, Federal Rural University of Rio De Janeiro, UFRRJ, RJ, Brazil
Brazilian National Research Center, EMBRAPA Swine and Poultry, SC, Brazil
Tropical Sustainability Institute, TSI, SP, Brazil
Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, RJ, Brazil
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(1):11–16
Introduction and objective:
Recently, investigations in a swine herd identified evidence of the existence of a novel member of the Hepadnavirus family endemic in swine. The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular markers of Hepadnavirus circulation in Brazilian domestic swine and wild boar herds, and to evaluate the identity with HBV and other Hepadnaviruses reported previously.

Material and Methods:
For the study, 376 swine were screened for hepatitis B virus serological markers. Analyses were performed in serum samples using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (DiaSorin®) for anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs. Reactive and undetermined swine serum samples were selected to perform DNA viral extraction (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen®), partial genome amplification and genome sequencing.

From 376 swine samples analysed, 28 (7.45%) were reactive to anti-HBc, 3 (0.80%) to HBsAg and 6 (1.6%) to anti-HBs. Besides, more 17 (4.52%) swine samples analyzed were classified in the grey zone of the EIA test to anti-HBc and 2 (0.53%) to HBsAg. From 49 samples molecularly analyzed after serological trial, 4 samples showed a positive result for the qualitative PCR for Hepadnavirus. Phylogenetic reconstruction using partial genome sequencing (360 bp) of 3 samples showed similarity with HBV with 90.8–96.3% of identity.

Serological and molecular data showed evidence of the circulation of a virus similar to hepatitis B virus in swine.

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