RESEARCH PAPER
Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions before and after pesticide application in cotton farming
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Chest Diseases, University School of Medicine, Harran, Turkey
2
Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research, Süreyyapaşa, Turkey
3
Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Diseases, University School of Medicine, Ege, Turkey
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, University Engineering Faculty, Harran, Turkey
5
Department of ChestDiseases, Atatürk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey
6
Department of ChestDiseases, University School of Medicine, Düzce, Turkey
 
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Ojective:
To investigate respiratory health problems related to pesticide exposure in the inhabitants of agricultural areas.

Material and methods:
This study included 252 participants prior to pesticide application and 66 participants from the first group after pesticide application across four cotton farms. Symptom questionnaires were filled out by participants and respiratory function tests were measured before and after pesticide exposure. In addition, PM10, PM2.5, air temperature, and humidity were measured in all four farming villages before and after pesticide administration.

Results:
PM10 and PM2.5 levels were significantly increased after pesticide application. After pesticide application, all participants’ nose, throat, eye, and respiratory complaints increased significantly. Expected forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) percentage values decreased significantly. The rates of FVC and FEV1 values lower than 80% were 23.5% and 22%, espectively, before pesticide application, and this rate increased to 42.4% and 43.1%, respectively, after pesticide application. There was a significant negative correlation between PM10 levels and FVC, FEV1, and PEF values. After PM2.5 pesticide application, the risk of experiencing burning in the mouth, nose, and throat increased by 2.3-fold (OR: 2.316), 2.6-fold for burning symptoms in the eyes (OR: 2.593), 2.1-fold for wheezing (OR: 2.153), and 2.2-fold for chest tightness (OR: 2.211). With increased PM10 levels, the risk of chest tightness increased 1.1-fold (OR: 1.123).

Conclusions:
After pesticide administration, the respiratory health of the participants deteriorated. Performing pesticide applications in agriculture with harmless methods is the most important measure to be taken to protect public health

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Zafer Hasan Ali SAK   
Department of Chest Diseases, Harran University School of Medicine, osmanbey campus, 63300 Sanliurfa, Turkey
 
REFERENCES (25):
1. Arslan S, Aybek A. Particulate Matter Exposure in Agriculture, in Air Pollution. A Comprehensive Perspective. 2012; 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/5008....
2. Gaffney P, Yu H. Computing agricultural PM10 fugitive dust emissions using process Specific emission rates and GIS.US EPA Annual Emission Inventory Conference 2003; 1–10. SanDiego.California. https://www3.epa.gov/ttnchie1/... (last accessed on 2 October 2017).
3. Erisman JW, Bleeker A, Hensen A, et al. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives. Atmospheric Environ. 2007; 42: 3209–3217.
4. Bogman P, Cornelis W, Rolle H, et al. Prediction of TSP and PM 10 emissions from agricultural operations in Flanders, Belgium. Dust Conf 2007. Maastricht, Netherlands. Available at http://www.dustconf.org/CLIENT....
5. Socorro J, Durand A, Temime-Roussel B, et al. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue. Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 2267: 1–11.
6. Bossi R, Vorkamp K, Skov H. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominateddiphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greeland. Environ. Pollut. 2016; 1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.12.026.
7. Fenner K, Canonica S, Wackett L P, et al. Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities. Science 2013; 341: 752–758. doi:10.1126/science.1236281.
8. Nascimento MM, Rocha G O, Andrade J B. Pesticides in fine airborne particles: from a green analysis method to atmospheric characterization and risk assessment. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 2267. DOI:10.1038/s41598–017–02518–1.
9. Zuskin E, Mustajbegovic J, Schachter EN, et al. Respiratory function in pesticide workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2008; 50(11): 1299–1305.
10. World Health Organization. Health effects of particulate matter. Policy implications for countries in eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asia. 2013, WHO Regional Office for Europe UN City, Marmorvej 51 DK- 2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark.
11. Wilkins JR rd, Engelhardt HL, Rublaitus SM, et al. Prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among Ohio cash grain farmers. Am J Ind Med. 1999; 35: 150–163.
12. LeVan TD, Von Essen S, Romberger DJ, et al. Polymorphisms in the CD14 gene associated with pulmonary function in farmers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005; 171: 773–779.
13. Hoppin JA, Valcin M, Henneberger PK, et al. Pesticide use and chronic bronchitis among farmers in the agricultural health study. Amer J Ind Med. 2007; 50: 969–979.
14. Valcin M, Henneberger PK, Kullman GJ, et al. Chronic Bronchitis among Non-Smoking Farm Women in the Agricultural Health Study. J Occup Environ Med. 2007; 49(5): 574–583.
15. Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, London SJ, et al. Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2006; (163): 1129–1137.
16. Kirkhorn SR, Garry VF. Agricultural lung diseases. Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108 (4): 705- 712.
17. Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, London SJ, et al. Chemical predictors of wheeze among farmer pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002; (165): 683–689.
18. Deschamps FJ, Turpin JC. Methyl bromide intoxication during grain store fumigation. Occup Med. (Lond) 1996; (46): 89–90.
19. Löpez A, Yusa V, Munoz A, et al. Risk assessment of airborne pesticides in a Mediterranean region of Spain. Science of the Total Environ. 2017; 574: 724–734.
20. Peiris-John RJ, Ruberu DK, Wickremasinghe AR, et al. Low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides leads to restrictive lung dysfunction. Respir Med. 2005; 99 (10): 1319–1324.
21. Salameh P, Waked M, Baldi I, et al. Spirometric changes following the use of pesticides. East Mediterr. Health J. 2005; 11: 126–136.
22. Mekonnen Y, Agonafir T. Lung function and respiratory symptoms of pesticide sprayers in state farms of Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2004; 42 (4): 261–266.
23. Alif SM, Dharmage SC, Benke G, et al. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed air flow obstruction in middle-age. Thorax. 2017; 72 (11): 990–997.
24. World Health Organization Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2009, WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
25. Moretto A. Indoor spraying with the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin: Effects on spraymen and inhabitants of sprayed houses. Bull. World Health Organ. 1991; 69: 591–594.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966