RESEARCH PAPER
Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Lublin region (eastern Poland).
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Occupational Biohazards, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
2
Chair and Department of Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med 2006;13(2):301–306
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of 3 Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from wooded areas of the Lublin region (eastern Poland). A group of 1,813 I. ricinus ticks from 6 districts were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B.b.s.l.) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Another group of 438 I. ricinus ticks collected from 4 districts were examined for the presence of B.b.s.l. by culture on BSKH liquid medium confirmed by PCR, and for the presence of Borrelia spp. by dark field microscopy (DFM). Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii) were determined by nested-PCR in 113 ticks lysates showing presence of B.b.s.l. (in PCR or in culture and PCR). 5.4 % of I. ricinus ticks examined by PCR showed the presence of B.b.s.l. DNA. The infection rate was highest in females (12.1 %), lower in males (6.0 %) and the lowest in nymphs (1.7 %) (p<0.001). The minimum infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B.b.s.l. determined by culture was 3.4 %, whereas the minimum infection rate of ticks with motile spirochetes morphologically resembling Borrelia spp., determined by DFM, amounted to 11.2 %. The presence of all 3 Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies under investigation was found in ticks collected from 5 out of 6 examined districts. In 81.4 % of infected ticks only single infection with 1 genospecies was observed, while coinfections with 2 or 3 genospecies were detected respectively in 16.8 % and 1.8 % of infected ticks. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was the dominant genospecies in all examined tick stages and districts, both in single infections and in coinfections, and found in a total of 62.8 % of I. ricinus ticks infected with B.b.s.l. Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii were less frequent and observed in respectively 39.8 % and 17.8 % of infected ticks.
 
REFERENCES (60):
1. Atlas RM, Parks LC: Handbook of Microbiological Media. CRC Press, Boca Raton 1993.
2. Barral M, Garcia-Perez AL, Juste RA, Hurtado A, Escudero R, Sellek RE, Anda P: Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from the Basque Country, Spain. J Med Entomol 2002, 39, 177-184.
3. Bašta J, Plch J, Hulinská D, Daniel M: Incidence of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus ticks in an urban environment, Prague, Czech Republic, between 1995 and 1998. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999, 18, 515-517.
4. Baumgarten BU, Röllinghoff M, Bogdan C: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiae in Ixodes ricinus ticks from southern Germany. J Clin Microbiol 1999, 37, 3448-3451.
5. Brown RN, Peot MA, Lane RS: Sylvatic maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales) in Northern California: untangling the web transmission. J Med Entomol 2006, 43, 743-751.
6. Bukowska K: Occurence of genomic species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from the province of West Pomerania. Ann Acad Med Stetin 2002, 48, 395-405 (in Polish).
7. Bukowska K, Kosik-Bogacka D, Kuźna-Grygiel W: The occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the populations of Ixodes ricinus in forest areas of Szczecin during 2000-2001. Ann Agric Environ Med 2003, 10, 5-8.
8. Casati S, Bernasconi MV, Gern L, Piffaretti JC: Diversity within Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in Switzerland by recA gene sequence. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2004, 238, 115-123.
9. Chao LL, Shih CM: Molecular characterization of Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) isolated in Taiwan by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 5S(rrf)-23S(rrl) intergenic spacer amplicons. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2002, 67, 504-510.
10. Chmielewska-Badora J: Seroepidemiologic study on Lyme borreliosis in the Lublin region. Ann Agric Environ Med 1998, 5, 183-186.
11. Chmielewska-Badora J, Cisak E, Zwoliński J, Dutkiewicz J: Evaluation of occurrence of spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks in selected areas of the Lublin Region by polymerase chain reaction method (PCR). Wiad Parazytol 2003, 49, 165-171 (in Polish).
12. Christova I, Schouls L, van de Pol I, Park J, Panayotov S, Lefterova V, Kantardjiev T, Dumler JS: High prevalence of granulocytic ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Bulgaria. J Clin Microbiol 2001, 39, 4172-4174.
13. Cinco M, Padovan D, Murgia R, Poldini L, Frusteri L, van de Pol I, Verbeek-de Kruif N, Rijpkema S, Maroli M: Rate of infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii and group VS116 in an endemic focus of Lyme disease in Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1998, 17, 90-94.
14. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Dutkiewicz J, Zwoliński J: Preliminary studies on the relationship between Ixodes ricinus activity and tick-borne infection among occupationally exposed inhabitants of eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2001, 8, 293-295.
15. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Rajtar B, Zwoliński J, Jabłoński L, Dutkiewicz J: Study on the occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in ticks collected in Lublin region. Ann Agric Environ Med 2002, 9, 105-110.
16. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Wójcik-Fatla A, Polak J: Diversification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the aspect of infections among forestry workers. Med Ogólna 2004, 10, 323-331 (in Polish).
17. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Zwoliński J, Wójcik-Fatla A, Polak J, Dutkiewicz J: Risk of tick-borne bacterial diseases among workers of Roztocze National Park (south-eastern Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med 2005, 12, 127-132.
18. Danielová V, Daniel M, Rudenko N, Golovchenko M: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in selected South Bohemia locations (Czech Republic). Cent Eur J Public Health 2004, 12, 151-156.
19. Danielová V, Rudenko N, Daniel M, Holubová J, Materna J, Golovchenko M, Schwarzová L: Extension of Ixodes ricinus ticks and agent of tick-borne diseases to mountain areas in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol 2006, 296(Suppl. 1), 48-53.
20. Derdáková M, Halánová M, Stanko M, Štefančiková A, Čisláková L, Peťko B: Molecular evidence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from eastern Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med 2003, 10, 269-271.
21. Derdáková M, Lenčáková D: Association of genetic variability within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with the ecology, epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Ann Agric Environ Med 2005, 12, 165-172.
22. Dumler JS, Doteval L, Gustafson R, Granström M: A population-based seroepidemiology study of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis on the west coast of Sweden. J Infect Dis 1997, 175, 720-727.
23. Fraenkel CJ, Garpmo U, Berglund J: Determination of novel Borrelia genospecies in Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. J Clin Microbiol 2002, 40, 3308-3312.
24. Grzeszczuk A, Stańczak J, Kubica-Biernat B: Serological and molecular evidence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis focus in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (Puszcza Białowieska), northeastern Poland. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002, 21, 6-11.
25. Hovius KE, Beijer B, Rijpkema SGT, Bleumink-Pluym NMC, Houwers DJ: Identification of four Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Dutch dogs. Vet Q 1998, 20, 143-145.
26. Hubálek Z, Halouzka J: Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review. Eur J Epidemiol 1997, 13, 951-957.
27. Jenkins A, Kristiansen BE, Allum AG, Aakre RK, Strand L, Kleveland EJ, van de Pol I, Schouls L: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Erlichia spp. in Ixodes ticks from southern Norway. J Clin Microbiol 2001, 39, 3666-3671.
28. Jouda F, Perret JL, Gern L: Ixodes ricinus density, and distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection along an altitudinal gradient. J Med Entomol 2004, 41, 162-169.
29. Kahl O, Schmidt K, Schönberg A, Laukamm-Josten U, Knülle W, Bienzle U: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Berlin (West). Zbl Bakt Hyg A 1989, 270, 434-440.
30. Kipp S, Goedecke A, Dorn W, Wilske B, Fingerle V: Role of birds in Thuringia, Germany, in the natural cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the Lyme disease spirochaete. Int J Med Microbiol 2006, 296 (Suppl. 1), 125-128.
31. Lenčáková D, Hizo-Teufel C, Peťko B, Schulte-Spechtel U, Stanko M, Wilske B, Fingerle V: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. OspA types in Ixodes ricinus ticks from selected localities in Slovakia and Poland. Int J Med Microbiol 2006, 296(Suppl. 1), 108-118.
32. Lünemann JD, Zarmas S, Priem S, Franz J, Zschenderlein R, Aberer E, Klein R, Schouls L, Burmester GR, Krause A: Rapid typing of Borrelia burdorferi sensu lato species in specimens from patients with different manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol 2001, 39, 1130-1133.
33. Maetzel D, Maier WA, Kampen H: Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalences in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in urban and suburban Bonn, western Germany. Parasitol Res 2005, 95, 5-12.
34. Mäkinen J, Vuorinen I, Oksi J, Peltomaa M, He Q, Marjamäki M, Viljanen MK: Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from southwestern Finland and from Vormsi Island in Estonia. APMIS 2003, 111, 355-362.
35. Meldunek 12/B/05 o zachorowaniach na choroby zakaźne i zatruciach zgłoszonych w okresie od 16.12 do 31.12.2005 r. Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny, Warszawa 2006.
36. Michalik J, Skotarczak B, Skoracki M, Wodecka B, Sikora B, Hofman T, Rymaszewska A, Sawczuk M: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in yellow-necked mice feeding Ixodes ricinus ticks in a forest habitat of west central Poland. J Med Entomol 2005, 42, 850-856.
37. Morshed MG, Scott JD, Fernando K, Geddes G, McNabb A, Mak S, Durden LA: Distribution and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates from Ixodes scapularis and presence in mammalian hosts in Ontario, Canada. J Med Entomol 2006, 43, 762-773.
38. Oehme R, Hartelt K, Backe H, Brockmann S, Kimmig P: Foci of tick-borne diseases in southwest Germany. Int J Med Microbiol 2002, 291(Suppl. 33), 22-29.
39. Oliver JH Jr, Lin T, Gao L, Clark KL, Banks CW, Durden LA, James AM, Chandler FW Jr: An enzootic cycle of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in the southeastern Unites States. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003, 100, 11642-11645.
40. Pawełczyk A, Ogrzewalska M, Zadrożna I, Siński E: The zoonotic reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Mazury Lakes district of north-eastern Poland. Int J Med Microbiol 2004, 293 (Suppl. 37), 167-171.
41. Pet'ko B, Siuda K, Stanko M, Tresová G, Karbowiak G, Fričová J: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Ixodes ricinus ticks in southern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 1997, 4, 263-269.
42. Quessada T, Martial-Convert F, Arnaud S, Leudet DeLa Vallee H, Gilot B, Pichot J: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorgferi species and identification of Borrelia valaisiana in questing Ixodes ricinus in the Lyon region of France as determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2003, 22, 165-173.
43. Ranka R, Bormane A, Salmina K, Baumanis V: Identification of three clinically relevant Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer amplicons. J Clin Microbiol 2004, 42, 1444-1449.
44. Rauter C, Oehme R, Diterich I, Engele M, Hartung T: Distribution of clinically relevant Borrelia genospecies in ticks assessed by a novel, single-run, real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2002, 40, 36-43.
45. Rijpkema S, Golubic D, Moelkenboer M, Verbeek-De Kruif N, Schellekens J: Identification of four genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a Lyme borreliosis endemic region of northern Croatia. Exp Appl Acarol 1996, 20, 23-30.
46. Ryffel K, Peter O, Rutti B, Suard A, Dayer E: Scored antibody reactivity determined by immunoblotting shows an association between clinical manifestations and presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii and B. valaisiana in humans. J Clin Microbiol 1999, 37, 4086-4092.
47. Santino I, del Piano M, Sessa R, Favia G, Iori A: Detection of four Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies and first report of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in central Italy. Epidemiol Infect 2002, 129, 93-97.
48. Schaarschmidt D, Oehme R, Kimmig P, Hesch RD, Englisch S: Detection and molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and in different patient samples from southwest Germany. Eur J Epidemiol 2001, 17, 1067-1074.
49. Skotarczak B, Wodecka B, Cichocka A: Coexistence DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks from north-western Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2002, 9, 25-28.
50. Skotarczak B, Rymaszewska A, Wodecka B, Sawczuk M: Molecular evidence of coinfection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, and Babesia microti in ticks from northwestern Poland. J Parasitol 2003, 89, 194-196.
51. Stańczak J, Racewicz M, Kubica-Biernat B, Kruminis-Łozowska W, D ą browski J, Adamczyk A, Markowska M: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) in different Polish woodlands. Ann Agric Environ Med 1999, 6, 127-132.
52. Stańczak J, Kubica-Biernat B, Racewicz M, Kruminis-Łozowska W, Kur W: Detection of three genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from different regions of Poland. Int J Med Microbiol 2000, 290, 559-566.
53. Stańczak J, Gabre RM, Kruminis-Łozowska W, Racewicz M, Kubica-Biernat B: Ixodes ricinus as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in urban and suburban forests. Ann Agric Environ Med 2004, 11, 109-114.
54. Štefančiková A, Pet'ko B, Rozická I, Šalyová N, Ohlasová D: Epidemiological survey of human borreliosis diagnosed in eastern Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med 2001, 8, 171-175.
55. Štěánová-Tresová G, Pet'ko B, Štefančiková A, Nadzamová D: Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in the Ixodes ricinus ticks from eastern Slovakia. Eur J Epidemiol 2000, 16, 105-109.
56. Štěpánová-Tresová G, Kopecký J, Kuthejlová M: Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus ticks from southern Bohemia using monoclonal antibodies. Zbl Bakt 2000, 298, 797-806.
57. Wilske B: Epidemiology and diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Ann Med 2005, 37, 568-579.
58. Wittenbrink MM, Reuter C, Baumeister K, Schütze H, Krauss H: Identification of group VS116 strains among Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato grown from the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) by PCR-coupled restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Zbl Bakt 1998, 288, 45-57.
59. Wodecka B, Skotarczak B: Genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in north-west Poland. Wiad Parazytol 2000, 46, 475-485 (in Polish).
60. Wodecka B: Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2003, 10, 171-178.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966