RESEARCH PAPER
Polish version of the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Anaesthesiological and Intensive Care Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Qualified Medical Aid, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Applied Psychology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
 
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU) by M. Miles et al. has been developed in order to assess the stress experienced by parents of infants being treated in Intensive Care Units. The measurement of parental stress enables the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness, as well as facilitating the determination of the level of progress made by parents in coping with the difficult situation they face.

Objectives:
The aims of the research include: (1) validation of the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit into Polish and (2) initial assessment of perceptions of parental stress in a group of 151 parents of infants treated in four NICUs in Poland.

Material and methods:
This quantitative cross-sectional study was performed among 151 parents (129 mothers and 22 fathers) of infants treated in four NICUs in central and eastern Poland. The respondents were asked to complete forms following the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the Impact Event Scale – Revised (IES–R),and their demographics, which combined basic medical data along with socio-emographic data of both parents and children.

Results:
The three sub-scales distinguished on the basis of the factor analysis (Infant Appearance, Parental Role Alteration, Sights and Sounds) can explain in total 54.89% of variances. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire scale equals 0.92, while as follows for the particular sub-scales: Infant Appearance -.92; Parental Role Alteration -.86, and Sights and Sounds – 0.78.

Conclusions:
The Polish version of PSS:NICU is an accurate and reliable tool for the assessment of stress experienced by parents whose infants require treatment in NICUs.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Marzena Elżbieta Samardakiewicz   
Department of Applied Psychology, Medical University, Lublin, ul.Witolda Chodźki 7, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
 
REFERENCES (31):
1. Lothian JA. The Journey of Becoming a Mother. JPE. 2008;17(4): 43–7. doi: 10.1624/105812408X364071.
2. Busse M, Stromgren K, Thorngate L, Thomas KA. Parents’ Responses to Stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. CCN. 2013; 33(4): 52–9. doi: 10.4037/ccn2013715.
3. Feeley N, Gottlieb L, Zelkowitz P. Mothers and Fathers of Very Low–Birthweight Infants: Similarities and Differences in the First Year After Birth. JOGNN. 2007; 36(6): 558–67. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2007.00186.x.
4. Gondwe KW, Holditch-Davis D. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. IJANS. 2015; 3: 8–17. doi: 10.1016/j.ijans.2015.05.002.
5. Lefkowitz DS, Baxt C, Evans JR. Prevalence and Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress and Postpartum Depression in Parents of Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2010; 17(3): 230–7. doi: 10.1007/s10880-010-9202-7.
6. Morawski Mew A, Holditch-Davis D, Belyea M, Shandor Miles M, Fishel A. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Preterm Infants. Neonatal Network: J Neonatal Nurs. 2003; 22(5): 51–60. doi: 10.1891/0730-0832.22.5.51.
7. Witt WP, Litzelman K, Spear HA, Wisk LE, Levin N, McManus BM, et al. Health-related quality of life of mothers of very low birth weight children at the age of five: Results from the newborn lung project statewide cohort study. Qual Life Res. 2012; 21(9): 1565–76. doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-0069-3.
8. Vigod SN, Villegas L, Dennis C-L, Le Ross. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression among women with preterm and low-birth-weight infants: A systematic review. BJOG: IJOG. 2010; 117(5): 540–50. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02493.x.
9. McManus BM, Poehlmann J. Maternal depression and perceived social support as predictors of cognitive function trajectories during the first 3 years of life for preterm infants in Wisconsin. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2012; 38(3): 425–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01253.x.
10. Miles MS, Funk SG, Carlson J. Parental Stressor Scale: neonatal intensive care unit. Nurs Res. 1993; 42(3): 148–52.
11. Guillaume S, Michelin N, Amrani E, Benier B, Durrmeyer X, Lescure S, et al. Parents’ expectations of staff in the early bonding process with their premature babies in the intensive care setting: A qualitative multicenter study with 60 parents. BMC Pediatr. 2013; 13(1): 18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-18.
12. Turan T, Başbakkal Z, Özbek Ş. Effect of nursing interventions on stressors of parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care unit. JCN. 2008; 17(21): 2856–66. doi: 10.1111/j.1365–2702.2008.02307.x.
13. Abdeyazdan Z, Shahkolahi Z, Mehrabi T, Hajiheidari M. A family support intervention to reduce stress among parents of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care unit. Iranian JNMR. 2014; 19(4): 349–53. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm....
14. Ahn Y-M, Kim N-H. Parental Perception of Neonates, Parental Stress and Education for NICU Parents. ANR. 2007; 1(3): 199–210. doi: 10.1016/S1976-1317(08)60022-5.
15. Beheshtipour N, Baharlu SM, Montaseri S, Razavinezhad Ardakani SM. The Effect of the Educational Program on Iranian Premature Infants’ Parental Stress in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. IJCBNM. 2014; 2(4): 240–50. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm....
16. Franck LS, Cox S, Allen A, Winter I. Measuring neonatal intensive care unit-related parental stress. J Adv Nurs. 2005; 49(6): 608–15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03336.x.
17. Mansson C, Jakobsson U, Lundqvist P. Translation and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish version of the parental stressor scale PSS: NICU. Scand J Caring Sci. 2015; 30(1): 183–201. doi: 10.1111/scs.12217.
18. Hatcher L. A Step-by-step approach to using the SAS system for factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Cary: SAS Institute. 2009. XIV, 588.
19. Sperber AD. Translation and validation of study instruments for cross-cultural research. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 124–128. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2003.10.016.
20. Montirosso R, Provenzi L, Calciolari G, Borgatti R. Measuring maternal stress and perceived support in 25 Italian NICUs. Acta Paediatrica. 2012; 101(2): 136–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02440.x.
21. Miles MS, Holditch-Davis D, Schwartz AT, Scher M. Depressive symptoms in mothers of prematurely born infants. JDBP. 2007; 28(1): 36–44.
22. Chourasia N, Surianarayanan P, Adhisivam B, Vishnu Bhat B. NICU Admissions and Maternal Stress Levels. Indian J Pediatr. 2013; 80(5): 380–4. doi: 10.1007/s12098-012-0921-7.
23. Dudek-Shriber L. Parent Stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and the Influence of Parent and Infant Characteristics. AJOT. 2004; 58(5): 509–20. doi: 10.5014/ajot.58.5.509.
24. Lau C, Hurst NM, Smith EO, Schanler RJ. Ethnic/racial diversity, maternal stress, lactation and very low birthweight infants. J Perinatol. 2007; 27(7): 399–408. doi: 10.1038/sj.jp.7211770.
25. Turan T, Başbakkal Z, Özbek Ş. Effect of nursing interventions on stressors of parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care unit. JCN. 2008; 17(21): 2856–66. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02307.x.
26. Turner M, Chur-Hansen A, Winefield H, Stanners M. The assessment of parental stress and support in the neonatal intensive care unit using the Parent Stress Scale – Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Women and Birth. 2015; 28(3): 252–8. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2015.04.001.
27. Franck LS, Oulton K, Nderitu S, Lim M, Fang S, Kaiser A. Parent Involvement in Pain Management for NICU Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial. PEDIATRICS. 2011; 128(3): 510–8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0272.
28. Alkozei A, McMahon E, Lahav A. Stress levels and depressive symptoms in NICU mothers in the early postpartum period. J MATERN-FETAL NEO M. 2014; 27(17): 1738–43. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2014.942626.
29. Garfield L, Holditch-Davis D, Carter CS, McFarlin BL, Schwertz D, Seng JS, et al. Risk Factors for Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in Low-Income Women With Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants. Adv Neonatal Care. 2015; 15(1): 3–8. doi: 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000131.
30. Greene MM, Rossman B, Patra K, Kratovil AL, Janes JE, Meier PP. Depression, Anxiety, and Perinatal-Specific Posttraumatic Distress in Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. JDBP. 2015; 36(5): 362–70. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000174.
31. Shaw RJ, St John N, Lilo E, Jo B, Benitz W, Stevenson DK, et al. Prevention of Traumatic Stress in Mothers of Preterms: 6-Month Outcomes. PEDIATRICS. 2014; 134(2): 481–488. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0529.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966