Periodontal condition and periodontal risk assessment in adult patients with cystic fibrosis
More details
Hide details
Department of Paediatric Dentistry, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
Tamara Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska   

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, ul. Bukowska 70, 60-812, Poznań, Poland
The presence of chronic inflammation in the mouth, such as infectious disease of the periodontal tissues, may be the reservoir of microorganisms that are not usually present, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The purpose of the study was to create a profile of periodontal conditions and periodontal risk assessment in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

Material and methods:
The study involved 22 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged 29.43 years. The following parameters were included in the clinical study: number and cause of permanent teeth loss (excluding third molars), the presence of plaque (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL). On the basis of obtained clinical data, the periodontal status and the periodontal risk were determined.

The study showed healthy periodontal tissues in 9 people (41%), gingivitis in 5 (23%), and mild periodontitis in 8 (36.36%). The periodontal risk in the vast majority of patients (90.91%) was at a low level – only 2 people, on average.

The authors express their thanks grateful to individuals with cystic fibrosis who contributed to this study. The study was supported by the Department of Pulmonology, Allergology and Respiratory Oncology, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
Tunney MM, Field TR, Moriarty TF, et al. Detection of anaerobic bacteria in high numbers in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008; 177: 995–1001. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200708-1151OC.
Caldas RR, Le Gall F, Revert K, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity and lungs of cystic fibrosis patients: a case control study. J Clin Microbiol. 2015; 53: 1898–1907. doi:10.1128/JCM.00368-15.
Petersen PE, Ogawa H. The global burden of periodontal disease: towards integration with chronic disease prevention and control. Periodontol 2000. 2012; 60: 15–39. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2011.00425.x.
Krustrup U, Petersen P. Periodontal conditions in 35–44 and 65–74-year-old adults in Denmark. Acta Odontol Scand. 2006; 64: 65–73. doi: 10.1080/00016350500377859.
Armitage GC. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and condition. Ann Periodontol. 1999; 4: 1–6.
Caton J, Armitage G, Berglundh T, et al. A new classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions – Introduction and key changes from the 1999 classification. J Clin Periodontol. 2018; 45 (Suppl 20): 1–8.
Albandar JM. Global risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2002; 29: 177–206. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2002.290109.x.
Mühlemann HR, Son S. Gingival sulcus bleeding-a leading symptom in initial gingivitis. Helv Odontol Acta. 1971; 15: 107–113.
Migliorati CA, Madrid C. The interface between oral and systemic health: the need for more collaboration. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007; 13: 11–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01799.x.
Garcia R. A review of the possible role of oral and dental colonization on the occurrence of health care-associated pneumonia: underappreciated risk and a call for interventions. Am J Infect Control. 2005; 33: 527–541. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2005.02.005.
Proctor R, Kumar N, Stein A, et al. Oral and dental aspects of chronic renal failure. J Dent Res. 2005; 84: 199–208. doi: 10.1177/154405910508400301.
Peker S, Kargul B, Tanboga I, et al. Oral health and related factors in a group of children with cystic fibrosis in Istanbul, Turkey. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015; 18: 56–60. doi: 10.4103/1119-3077.146980.
Martens LC, Aps JKM, Van Maele GO. Is oral health at risk in people with cystic fibrosis? Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2001; 2: 21–27.
Ferrazzano GF, Orlando S, Sangianantoni G, et al. Dental and periodontal health status in children affected by cystic fibrosis in a southern Italian region. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2009; 10: 65–68.
Aps JK, Van Maele GO, Martens LC. Caries experience and oral cleanliness in cystic fibrosis homozygotes and heterozygotes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002; 93: 560–563.
Aps JK, Van Maele GO, Martens LC. Oral hygiene habits and oral health in cystic fibrosis. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2002; 3: 181–187.
Narang A, Maguire A, Nunn JH, et al. Oral health and related factors in cystic fibrosis and other chronic respiratory disorders. Arch Dis Child. 2003; 88: 702–707.
Dabrowska E, Błahuszewska K, Minarowska A, et al. Assessment of dental status and oral hygiene in the study population of cystic fibrosis patients in the Podlasie province. Adv Med Sci. 2006; 51: 100–103.
World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys, Basic Methods. 4th edn. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1998; 1–67.
O’Leary T, Drake R, Naylor J. The Plaque Control Record. J Periodontol. 1972; 43: 38.
Ainamo J, Bay I. Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int Dent J. 1975; 25: 229–235.
Lang NP, Tonetti MS. Periodontal risk assessment (PRA) for patients in supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003; 1: 7–16.
Chandra RV. Evaluation of a novel periodontal risk assessment model in patients presenting for dental care. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2007; 5: 39–48.
Claffey N, Nylund K, Kiger R, et al. J. Diagnostic predictability of scores of plaque, bleeding, suppuration and probing depth for probing attachment loss. 3 1/2 years of observation following initial periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol. 1990; 17: 108–114.