Introduction and objective:
The aim of the study was to evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature babies at the age of 2 years, and to determine whether rehabilitation was carried out during this period. An additional aim was to determine the relationship between the use of rehabilitation and the degree of prematurity, asphyxia, birth weight, and the result of brain ultrasound.

Material and methods:
The study included 87 premature babies born between 24–31 weeks of pregnancy. A rehabilitation specialist assessed the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the children aged 2 years. Based on the documentation, the frequency of rehabilitation and its dependence on prematurity, asphyxia, birth weight and ultrasound results were analyzed.

Correct neurodevelopmental outcome in children aged 2 years was found in 57 (65%) children, of whom 40 (46%) did not undergo rehabilitation. Incorrect development was observed in a group of 30 children – 12 patients were diagnosed with CP (14%), and 18 (21%) had ‘red flags’ of development milestones, they underwent rehabilitation. There was no statistically significant relationship between the degree of prematurity, perinatal asphyxia, birth weight and rehabilitation in the first 2 years of life. Abnormal ultrasound results were more common in rehabilitated children (n = 25; 53%) than in children without rehabilitation (n = 10; 25%), p = 0.008.

Correct neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 2 reached two-thirds of extreme prematurities, most of which did not need rehabilitation during this period. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to show the percentage of premature babies who in the first 2 years of life did not require rehabilitation and achieved normal development.

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