RESEARCH PAPER
Influence of Pb and Cd levels in whole blood of postmenopausal women on the incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms
 
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1
Department of Clinical Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Chemical Damage, Institute of Industrial Medicine and Community Health, Sosnowiec, Poland
4
Department of Public Health, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
5
Frauenklinik Sana Hanse Klinikum Wismar, Germany
6
Department of Gynaecology and Urogynaecology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Police, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018;25(2):219–223
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
To-date, the influence of heavy metals such as Pb or Cd on mental functioning, and especially on the occurrence of depressive and anxiety-related disorders, has not been well understood.

Objectives:
1) Assessment of Pb and Cd levels in whole blood of postmenopausal women. 2) Assessment of the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms depending on Pb and Cd levels in whole blood of postmenopausal women.

Material and Methods:
The survey-based study involved 198 healthy postmenopausal women from West Pomeranian province in Poland. It was performed using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The second part of the study was based on biochemical analysis of the levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd).

Results:
The mean level of Pb was 19.85 ± 8.99 µg/l and Cd 0.87±0.98 µg/l; these levels were within normal ranges. Analysis of the mean levels of Pb and Cd in whole blood of postmenopausal women in relation to the severity of depressive symptoms did not reveal statistically significant differences. Correlation analysis demonstrated a statistically significant (p<0.05) negative correlation (-0.22) between the level of Pb and the severity of anxiety as a state. Correlations between the levels of Pb and Cd and the severity of anxiety as a trait were not statistically significant.

Conclusions:
The mean Pb and Cd levels in whole blood of healthy postmenopausal women did not exceed acceptable limits. The study did not confirm a relationship between the levels of selected heavy metals and the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in healthy women. However, there was a relationship between the level of Pb and the severity of anxiety as a state.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Elżbieta Grochans   
Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
 
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